Diabetes Mellitus - An Insight Diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterized by increased blood sugar (hyperglycemia) due to defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
Types of Diabetes Type 1 diabetes:-No Insulin present at all. Happens often during childhood. Usually below 30 years of age. Also called as Juvenile Diabetes. The cells responsible for making Insulin are absent
Types of Diabetes Type 2 diabetes:-Not enough insulin OR Insulin doesn’t work (Insulin resistance) Happens usually above 30 Years of age, also known as Adult Onset Diabetes. Insulin resistance
Insulin Insulin is a substance that controls the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
Insulin If there isn’t enough insulin or if it doesn’t have the proper effect, the level of glucose in the blood increases and this can have harmful effects. Target for Diabetic patients PPBG : < 180 mg/dl FBG : 90 - 130 mg/dl
The Controls Diet Exercise Foot Care
Diet Control • Limit your food intake during each meal or snack • Divide your food intake into 3 evenly spaced meals with a small healthy snack between meals ,if needed
Diet Control • Don’t skip meals • Eat fibre rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains and beans • Limit the amount of fat , sugar and salt in your meal
Diet Control Points to be taken into consideration while planning the diet • Avoid roots and tubers e.g. potato, sweet- potato, but carrot and radish can be consumed. • Avoid sugar, glucose, jams, honey, sweets, nuts, Horlicks,Bournvita etc. DO NOT EAT US..WE ARE NOT GOOD FOR YOU Choose me
Diet Control • Avoid fried food. • Include salads but avoid salad dressing with fat • Include plenty of green leafy vegetables.
Diet Control • Quantity of oil should be restricted • Dietary exchanges should be taken into consideration consume very less oil
Diet Control • Include food rich in fibre • Avoid fruits such as mango, banana, chickoo, custard apple etc
Exercise Losing weight can be: Difficult & Frustrating
Exercise But it is POSSIBLE to : Lose weight & Sustain weight loss
Exercise Physical activity is an important part of Diabetes Management
Exercise Exercise can: • Boost your metabolism • Increase muscle mass, so you burn more calories • Help improve the body’s response to insulin and naturally lowering glucose by burning extra calories.
Exercise • You need to exercise daily or at least five times a week • The exercise duration should for 45 to 55 minutes at a time The facts: For people having diabetes
Exercise • Since the muscles that use glucose appropriately are the long, thin muscles, you need to develop these muscles • This requires exercise that is low-resistance and high-frequency such as walking
Exercise With a daily low-resistance, high-frequency exercise program lasting 45 to 55 minutes, blood glucose control for diabetes patients improves and stabilizes, even before weight loss is achieved.
Exercise Exercise has no long-term effect on glucose. Within 24 to 48 hours of cessation, the beneficial effects on diabetes and its control are lost. Therefore, exercise is a life-long commitment
Exercise Top Ten Benefits of Being Active • Improves Blood Glucose Management • Lowers Blood Pressure • Improves Blood Fats • Lesser intake of Insulin or Diabetes Pills
Exercise • Lose weight and sustain it • Lower risk of other health problems • Gain more energy and sleep better
Exercise • Relieves stress • Builds stronger bones and muscles • Enhances flexibility
Foot Care Check your Feet Every Day!
Foot Care • Foot problems can literally develop overnight • It is essential to check your feet daily
Foot Care Check your feet daily for the following : • Cuts, blisters or sores • Change in temperature (hot or cold) • Change in colour (pale, red, blue)
Foot Care • Swelling • Pain • Dry, cracking skin • Sweaty skin
Foot Care • Athletes foot or other rashes • Signs and symptoms of infection • Corns and calluses
Foot Care How to take care of your feet ?
Foot Care • Look at your feet every day. Make sure there are no cuts or red areas • Use a mirror to see the bottom of your feet • Don’t soak your feet. Wash them well with mild soap and water every day
Foot Care • Dry them very well, including in between the toes • Don’t walk barefoot
Foot Care • Wear shoes that fit well • Buy socks designed to keep your feet comfortable • Use lotion on your feet, but not between the toes
Foot Care Meet your Foot doctor • Do not cut your toenails. File them instead, or have them trimmed by a foot doctor • If you have poor circulation, nerve damage, or very thick toenails, see a foot doctor regularly • Also see a foot doctor, if you have corns, calluses, or bunions
Foot Care • If you do get a cut or scratch, address it right away • Wash with mild soap and warm water • Use a mild ointment • Cover with gauze and paper tape or a fabric bandage Make sure to change this often
Foot Care If the affected area does not heal OR Gets red OR Has any drainage Call your healthcare provider right away