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The Structure of the Cell

The Structure of the Cell

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The Structure of the Cell

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  1. The Structure of the Cell http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOTke2eJ5K8

  2. Cell Theory: • 1. The basic unit of life • 2. All living things are composed of cells • 3. Cells come from preexisting cells

  3. Two Types of Cells: • 1. Prokaryotic cell- No nucleus or membrane bound organelles (smaller, primitive, first cells on earth) • 2. Eukaryotic cell- Have nucleus and membrane bound organelles (larger, more evolved)

  4. Prokaryotes are the first cells to evolve Draw this prokaryotic cell This is an electron micrograph of an actual prokaryotic cell. It has a rod shape

  5. Cell Wall- Prevent cell from bursting. • 3 basic shapes- cocci, bacilli, and spirilli • Capsule- Outside the cell wall. For additional protection. • Plasma membrane- Regulates what crosses into the cell • Nucleiod Region- where circular DNA is found • Ribosomes- Workbench, where proteins are made

  6. *Flagella- Solid core of protein. Rotate like helicopter roter • *Pili- Extentions that allow prokaryotes to come together for DNA exchange • *Lamella- contains chlorophyll for photosynthetic prokaryotes • * Not on all prokaryotes

  7. Eukaryotic Cells: • More highly evolved with organelles for work • Organelles evolved from • Involution of cell membrane • Prokaryotic cells

  8. Picture below is an electron micrograph of nuclear pores

  9. The nucleolus in the Nucleus and contains DNA, which codes for the production of ribosomal RNA. • This is an actual picture of the nucleus

  10. The nucleus has a double membrane or a nuclear envelope. Has protein pores to regulate materials in and out. Contains DNA (chromatin) which codes for proteins Electron micrograph of a nucleus with protein pores and showing the double membrane

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.) • Connected to the nuclear membrane. • Rough E.R. pitted with ribosomes that make proteins and put them into the E.R. • The proteins are then shipped to the Golgi for modification • The ribosomes are only attached when making proteins and “fall off” when they are done

  12. E.R. is continuous with the nuclear membrane

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth) E.R. • Attached to the rough E.R. is the smooth E.R. without ribosomes • Synthesis of Lipids and phospholipids • Breakdown of glycogen • Detoxification of drugs • Storage of calcium in muscles needed for contraction

  14. Electron micrograph of the Golgi Apparatus

  15. Golgi receiving macromolecules from the E.R. for modification

  16. Golgi Apparatus • Golgi is made of flattened membranes. Vesicle deposits material, the molecules go through membranes to get modified. Golgi apparatus is made from membranes of the E.R. • 1. Modifying proteins from the E.R. • 2. Making certain polysaccharides • 3. Contributing to the plasma membrane

  17. Evolutionary Theory of Protobiont