Rice crop monitoring in IndonesiaMuhrizal Sarwani and Rizatus Shofiyati Keynote Speech on Workshop on Crop Monitoring and Food Security,the 34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013 Bali, 22 October 2013
Background • Rice and poverty coincide in Asia, home to over 70% of the world’s poor (900 million people) andwhere almost 90% of the world’s rice is produced and consumed. • The Indonesian population continues togrow rapidly, meanwhile commodity prices are rising and the available arable land area is decreasing. • In most of the developing world, rice availability is equated with food security and closely connectedto political stability: Rice price increases have caused social unrest in several countries, most recentlyduring the food crisis of 2008.
Rice for Asia and INDONESIA • indispensable staple food crop for billions of people • Consumption 139kg/capita/year (Indonesia) • Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumptions. • Dominated by Asian countries • Distributed in wide range of climatic zones FAOSTAT 
Cont... • Rice is still the Main Components of Food Security (80% of national carbohydrate needs) • Paddy field in Indonesia (8,106,562million ha (MoA, 2012)) • 40% Indonesian paddy field located in Java Island (60% of national food production) • Increasing of Demand (Quantity) + 1.5% / year • in 2025 : the need of rice in Indonesia is around 58.6 million tons (Dry Milled Rice) →12.91 million ha Paddy field • 2010 – 2014: Target is to maintain self-sufficiency of 5 commodities (rice and corn, soybean, sugar, & meat) • Surplus target of rice : 10 million tons in 2014
National Rice Production Rice productionper-province (1993 – 2011) Source: BPS, 2012 • Approximately 40.33% of those in Indonesia, which is an area of 3.25 million hectares are in Java. • To supportnearly 53.82% (36,831,357 tons) of national food production. • in 2011 the harvested area increased to 13.57 million hectares with productivity of 5.02 tons / hectare.
Agricultural Information in Indonesia Agricultural information esp.cultivated area, growth and yield of major crops → important for food policy and economic planning. At present: crop acreage, production & other agricultural information → National Bureau of Statistics of Indonesia : Report summary of several administrative levels Sampling based on classical statistics (ubinan). Rice productivity data collected through the Crop Cutting Survey using SUB-S form based on household approach by a direct measurement in 2.5x2.5m crop cutting plot. The data collection is conducted in every subround (four-monthly) with Sub-district Statistic Coordinator (called KSK as coordinator of Sub Disrict Statistik) and KCD being the enumerator.
Remote Sensing Technology (Eyes in the sky) • Remote sensing data is expected can support crop monitoring and strengthening food security • IAARD is going to determine to research strategy to use remote sensing for food security program
State of the Art of Remote Sensing Utilization for National Agriculture Development • Identification of present landuse → paddy field and upland agriculture in crop production centers, for supporting the implementation and enforcement of UU Lahan Pertanian Berkelanjutan. • Updating and auditing land resources mapping & identificationto support : OPTIMIZING EXISTING AGRICULTURAL LAND • Monitoring paddy growing stages,and estimating paddy planting and harvesting area. • Detecting flood ordrought affected area → providing recommendations for mitigation. • Providing near real time information of paddy field condition by integrating with other information (such as Cropping Calendar) in an Integrated System Information for food stock policy.
On Going Activities of Using Remote Sensing Technologyto Support Crop Monitoring • Updating more detailed map of paddy field by verifying and using more precise satellite data • Completing agricultural landuse planning for special commodities and precision farming, • Site selection of local food potential for food diversification based on resources and post harvest handling, • Auditing tertiary irrigation system for water management • Monitoring agricultural crops production management, • Agricultural hazards monitoring related to crop insurance.
Information Systemfor Agriculture Monitoring InIndonesia Operationally used : Since 1972 : Land Resources Mapping (ICALRD , MoA)→ Recommendation for Agric. Planning → Aerial photograph, Landsat, etc Since 2007 : Integrated / Dinamic Cropping Calendar http://katam.info/main.aspx (IAHRI - ICALRD - IAARD – MoA) based onRainfall data Vegetation (Greeness) monitoring (LAPAN & BPPT) → MODIS On going project since 2012 : Agricultural Land Resources Information System part of Agricultural Resources Management Information System (ICALRD – IAARD – MoA) → Optic and SAR data Indonesia Rice Crop Monitoring from Space webgms.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/DMEWS/INDONESIA (Collaboration ICALRD of MoA – JAXA & Univ. Of Tokyo – LAPAN)
MOVING FORWARD • Ministry of Agriculture has envisaged that RS and GIS have a prominent role in promoting efforts for supporting food security. • Accurate information is indispensable for making policies related to the spatial distribution of rice fields, water resource management, annual production projections, and market predictions. • The major challenge of using remote sensing for estimating rice and crop production area: 1) increasing accuracy and 2) standardization of models.
National Collaboration Network for Crop Monitoring • LAPAN : (Indonesian Agency for Aeronautic and Aerospace) • Supply satellite data • Methodology • Support the availability UAV • Universities (IPB, UGM, IPB, ITS, UI, BINUS, dll): • Methodology • Capacity building • BPPT : (Agency Assessment for Application Technology) • Methodology • Central Beureau Statistic & PUSDATIN of MoA: • Field sampling methodology • Field data measurement and field work for collecting data
Progress of SAFE Activity for Crop Monitoring Objective: To assess existing model using multi-spectral optical remote sensing data as well as SAR data, for estimating planted area, yield, and production of paddy. To apply methods or model to obtain a map of planted area, yield, and production of rice derived from remote sensing data Expected Output of Year I (2013/14): Selected Satellite based model of estimating planted, harvested area, and production of paddy in the center of paddy area validated using ground truth data Paddyyield informationat sub district level of acreage, area harvested, and production of paddy derived from remote sensing data analysis in in the center of paddy area.
Progress of SAFE Activity for Crop Monitoring Satellite data analyzed : 16 days-composite MODIS data. Methods used : EVI, using LAPAN Model to estimate planted, harvested area, and production of paddy in the center of paddy area validated using ground truth data. Data field collected from Subang area
Framework of operational use after this prototyping • Satellite data processing : • digital analysis of satellite imagery, • identifying paddy growing stage • estimatingpaddy harvested area and production of paddy Data Provider: LAPAN JAXA Satellite data preparation : Inventory and selection of basic analytical methods ICALRD – IAARD – MoA LAPAN Preparation of information (spatial & tabular): paddy planted area, harvested area, and estimates of paddy production. Data & Information Updating IAARD, LAPAN, BPS, PUSDATIN of MoA Web-GIS based Information User: BPS, PUSDATIN of MoA, Agric. Local Office for Food Crop feedback
Closing Remarks • Remote sensing technology could be used as a second opininon information for predicting rice area and rice yield. • Improvement of accuracy and standardization of models urgently needed for research • Need sinergism of national institutional support the vision of a successful RS +GIS/ Geo-spatial Technology in any government organization.
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