1914-1918:The Worldat War Mr. CargileMission Hills High SchoolSan Marcos, CA
Differing Viewpoints • “Family Feud” • “Fall of the Eagles” • “The War to End All Wars” • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
A War of Words World War I and the events surrounding it brought a number of new terms into people’s everyday vocabularies.
A War of Words • Armistice 5. propaganda • Blockade 6. reconnaissance • Convoy 7. ultimatum • Mandate 8. no-man’s land
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkans in 1878 1. By the late 19th cent. The once-powerful Ottoman Empire was in decline & losing the outlying provinces closest to Europe.
A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans The Balkan Wars: 1912-1913 2. The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman Emp., sometime in cooperation, at other times as rivals.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
The Balkans in 1914 3. In reaction, the Young Turks conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan, advocated centralized rule & Turkification of minorities, & carried out modernizing reforms. 4. The Turks turned to Germany for assistance & hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s armed forces.
1. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
2. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
2. The Alliance System • The major European countries were organized into two alliances: • The Triple Alliance (Germany, A-H, & Italy) and the Triple Entente (Br., France, & Russia). • The military alliance system was accompanied by inflexible mobilization plans that depended on rXrs to move troops according to precise schedules.
2. The Alliance System 3. When A-H declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, diplomats, statesmen, and monarchs quickly lost control of events. 4. The alliance system in combination with the rigidly scheduled mobilization plans meant that war was automatic.
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914
4. Aggressive Nationalism • Nationalism was deeply rooted in European culture, where it served to unite individual nations while undermining large multiethnic empires. • Because of the spread of nationalism, most people viewed was as a crusade for liberty or as revenges for past injustices; the well-to-do believed that war could heal the class divisions in their societies.
1. The Outbreak of War • The Outbreak of War • The weakening of the Ottoman Empire, the rise of independent & fiercely nationalists states in the Balkans, & Austrian attempts to expand in the area raised tension between Austria & Russian-backed Serbia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand [heir to the Austrian throne] & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo • On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Ferdinand. 2. Austria decided that Serbia should be harshly punished & issued an ultimatum 3. Germany offered Austria unconditional support & Russia backed the Serbs. 4. Fearful of falling behind in mobilization, all major powers rushed towards war.
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
SHLEE-fuhn Question: Why was speed so important to the Schlieffen Plan? Possible Answer: Because the plan called for Germany to defeat France and then return its troops to the east before Russia fully mobilized.
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Recruitment Posters 1917: "I Want You for U.S. Army" lithograph. This image first appeared on the cover of a magazine called Leslie's Weekly with the title, "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?"
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
Spies • “Mata Hari” • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle • German Spy!