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Facilitating PS/ RtI Capacity: Tools , Skills, and Strategies for Practitioners. NASP 2013 Mini-Skills Presentation February 14 th , 2013 Amanda March Amber Brundage Clark Dorman Jose Castillo Kevin Stockslager University of South Florida. Purpose.

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facilitating ps rti capacity tools skills and strategies for practitioners

Facilitating PS/RtI Capacity: Tools, Skills, and Strategies for Practitioners

NASP 2013 Mini-Skills Presentation

February 14th, 2013

Amanda March

Amber Brundage

Clark Dorman

Jose Castillo

Kevin Stockslager

University of South Florida

  • To enhance practitioners’ understanding of empirically supported systems-change procedures, detailing systems-theory and principles identified as critical for success of PS/RtI initiatives.
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Discussion of critical components of PS-RtIimplementation &scale-up
  • Review of a comprehensive three-phase systems-change model
    • Consensus
    • Infrastructure
    • Implementation
  • Presentation, discussion, &practice of various tools to evaluate &progress monitor PS/RtI practices
  • Participants will leave with knowledge, skills, &tools to facilitate PS/RtI implementation &evaluation in their local settings
advanced organizer
Advanced Organizer
  • PS/RtI& MTSS
  • MTSS and Program Evaluation in the Schools
  • Example Tools & Practice Activities
    • Beliefs on RtI Scale
    • Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey – Revised
    • Tier I and II Critical Components Checklist
  • Discussion
  • Resources & References
  • Who are we?
  • Who are you?
    • Clicker Activities
ps rti model of service delivery
PS/RtI Model of Service Delivery
  • RtI is the practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student needs and utilizing data to make educational decisions about students (Batsche et al., 2005)
  • Components of a PS/RtI Model
    • Integrated multi-tier model of service delivery
    • Problem-solving method
    • Integrated data collection and assessment system
mtss defined
MTSS Defined
  • Evidence-basedmodel of educating students that uses data-based problem-solving to integrate academic and behavioral instruction and interventions;
  • Integrated instruction/interventions are delivered to students in varying intensities (multiple tiers) based on student need;
  • Need-driven decision making seeks to ensure the allocation of resources (district, school, classroom) are based on student need at the appropriate levels to accelerate performance of allstudents to achieve and/or exceed proficiency.

Florida’s MTSS




multi tiered system of support model in education
Multi-Tiered System of Support Model in Education

Systems Approach:

  • System - “The orderly combination of two or more individuals whose interaction is intended to produce a desired outcome.”(Curtis, Castillo, & Cohen, 2008)
  • Principles of Systems Change:
    • Shared Mission, Beliefs, and Values
    • Key Stakeholder Involvement
    • Effective, Committed Leadership
    • Systems Perspective – “Big” Picture
    • Structured Planning and Problem-Solving
      • Data-based decision making
      • Knowledge and skills to build capacity through professional development
florida s change model
Florida’s Change Model




three phase change model1
Three Phase Change Model


Belief is shared

Vision is agreed upon

Implementation requirements understood

Infrastructure Development


Training/Technical Assistance, Professional Development

Model (e.g., Standard Protocol)

Tier I and II intervention systems

E.g., K-3 Academic & Behavioral Support Plan

Data Management

Technology support

Decision-making criteria established


florida ps rti evaluation tools
Florida PS/RtI Evaluation Tools
  • Tools for Progress Monitoring PS/RtI
    • Self-Assessment of Problem-Solving Implementation (SAPSI)
  • Tools for Examining Consensus Development
    • Beliefs on RtI Scale
    • Perceptions of Practice Survey
  • Tools for Examining Infrastructure Development
    • Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey –Revised
    • Coaching Evaluation Survey – Revised
  • Tools for Examining Integrity of PS/RtI
    • Tier I and II Observation Checklist
    • Tier I and II Critical Components Checklist
    • Problem-Solving Team Meeting Checklists – Initial & Follow-Up
    • Tier III Critical Components Checklist
today s featured tools
Today’s Featured Tools
  • Tools for Examining Consensus Development
    • Beliefs on RtI Scale
  • Tools for Examining Infrastructure Development
    • Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey –Revised
  • Tools for Examining Integrity of PS/RtI
    • Tier I and II Critical Components Checklist
mtss evaluation issues
MTSS Evaluation Issues
  • The data you collect should be driven by the evaluation questionsyou want to answer
    • Are we implementing MTSS with fidelity?
    • Do we have the capacity to implement successfully?
    • Do staff buy into implementing MTSS?
answering evaluation q uestions
Answering Evaluation Questions
  • Use data to inform evaluation questions
  • Use data to answer broad/specific questions
  • Align analysis and data display with evaluation questions
  • Consider available technology resources to facilitate analyses of data—online administration, automatic analysis, knowledge and skill of personnel
the beliefs of educators
The Beliefs of Educators

Research suggests:

  • Educators beliefs about student learning styles, styles of teaching, and instructional strategies impact their willingness to implement new practices (Fang, 1996; Sparks, 2002)
  • Educational reform occurs when educators understand the need for change and embrace this need as a moral imperative (Fullan, 2010; Sharratt & Fullan, 2009)
  • Beliefs of leaders communicated to stakeholders influence the climate for successful implementation of new practices (Sharratt & Fullan, 2009)
description of survey
Description of Survey
  • Assesses educators beliefs regarding:
    • Student learning
    • The role of data in decision-making
    • Expectations for the effectiveness of instruction
  • 19 items; 5-point Likert scale
  • 1= Strongly Disagree …5= Strongly Agree
purpose of instrument
Purpose of Instrument

Purpose of the Beliefs on RtI Scale is to measure and inform consensus development in two ways:

  • Assess impact of professional development on educator beliefs about PS/RtI
  • Identify commonly held beliefs that will likely facilitate or hinder implementation efforts
administration procedures intended audience
Administration procedures-Intended Audience
  • Who should complete?
    • SBLT members
    • Instructional staff
  • Who should use results?
    • SBLTs
    • DBLTs
directions for administration
Directions for Administration
  • Methods for administration/dissemination
    • Completed individually
    • Anonymity
    • Opportunity for questions
  • Role of school principal—explain the “why”
  • Role of RtI coach/coordinator/SBLT member
  • Frequency of use: resources, rationale, recommendations

Two techniques to analyze survey responses:

  • Mean rating for each item calculated to determine average perceived belief level
  • Frequency of each response option selected calculated for each item
calculating item m ean
Calculating Item Mean
  • Overall assessment of reported beliefs of educators within a school/district
  • Can be done at domain (factor) and/or individual item level
    • Domain level: examine patterns in reported beliefs regarding
      • academic ability and performance of SWD
      • data-based decision-making
      • functions of core and supplemental instruction
    • Item level: identify specific beliefs staff report v. beliefs in need of exploration and support
calculating frequency of response options
Calculating Frequency of Response Options
  • Provides information on range of belief levels
  • Can be used to determine what percentage of staff may require little, some, or high levels of support to implement PS/RtI
  • Informs professional development decisions
interpretation use of data cont
Interpretation & Use of Data (cont.)
  • Sharing data with stakeholders:
    • DBLTs, SBLTs, instructional staff
  • Use data to:
    • Develop/adjust consensus-building goals
    • Design training/coaching activities
    • Facilitate consensus-building discussions re: rationale for PS/RtI, patterns and changes in beliefs over time
perceptions of skills
Perceptions of Skills

The likelihood of embracing new practices increases when:

  • Educators understand the need for the practice
  • Educators perceive they either have the skills to implement the practice or will be supported in developing required skills
perceptions of skills description and purpose
Perceptions of Skills—Description and Purpose
  • Theoretical Background:
    • Assess educators’ perceptions of skills they possess to implement PS/RtI
    • Understand perceptions of skills and how perceptions change as function of professional development to facilitate PS/RtI implementation
description of survey1
Description of Survey
  • Assesses skills/amount of support needed for:
    • Applying PS/RtI practices to academic content
    • Applying PS/RtI practices to behavior content
    • Data manipulation and technology use
  • 50items; 5-point Likert scale
  • 1= I do not have the skill at all (NS)…5= I am highly skilled in this area and could teach others (VHS)
purpose of instrument1
Purpose of Instrument

Purpose of the Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey:

  • Assess impact of professional development
  • Identify “comfort level” with PS/RtI practices to inform PD; allocate resources
administration scoring
Administration & Scoring
  • Same procedures as Beliefs on RtI Scale
interpretation use of data
Interpretation & Use of Data
  • Three domains:
    • Perceptions of skills applied to academic content
    • Perceptions of skills applied to behavior content
    • Perceptions of data manipulation and technology use skills
  • Three methodologies:
    • Calculate mean at domain level
    • Calculate mean at item level
    • Frequency/percentage of who selected each response option
  • Identify specific skills/skills sets for PS/support
what is integrity and why is it important
What is “Integrity”and why is it important?
  • Integrity is the degree to which something was done the way it was intended to be done.
  • When a process or procedure lacks “integrity,”few if any assumptions can be made about the outcome or impact of that process or procedure.
3 ways to assess implementation integrity
3 Ways to Assess Implementation Integrity


Most efficient

Least reliable

Permanent Product Reviews

Moderately efficient

Moderately reliable


Least efficient

Most reliable

theoretical background
Theoretical Background
  • Implementation of new practices is a gradual process that occurs in stages, not a one-time event (Fixen, Naoom, Blasé, & Wallace, 2005).
  • Since many educational reform initiatives fail due to lack of implementation (Sarason, 1990), it is critical to examine implementation integrity
  • Several methods for examining implementation integrity exist (Noell & Gansle, 2006)
    • Self-report
    • Permanent product reviews
    • Observations
  • Permanent product review
  • Measures the extent to which components of the PS/RtI process are evident in permanent products from data meetings addressing Tier I and/or Tier II content
  • 11 items organized around the 4-step problem-solving process
    • Problem identification
    • Problem analysis
    • Intervention development and implementation
    • Program evaluation/RtI
  • Response options: 0=Absent, 1=Partially present, 2=Present (N/A for some items)
  • To provide stakeholders with a practical methodology for evaluating the extent to which educators implement PS/RtI practices in data meetings addressing Tier I and /or II content
  • Permanent product reviews typically more reliable than self-report, but more resource-intensive
who should complete the checklist
Who should complete the checklist?
  • The person completing Tiers I and II CCC should have expertise in PS/RtI model and conducting permanent product reviews
    • Specifically, the 4 steps of the problem-solving process
  • PS/RtI Coaches, school psychologists, literacy specialists, etc.
directions for administration1
Directions for Administration
  • Identify content areas/grade levels being targeted by the school
  • Identify when Tier I/II data meetings occur and who is involved in the meetings
  • Find out who to contact for permanent products that come from identified meetings and what products will likely be available
  • Gather any relevant documents for the period of time for which the checklists are being completed
  • Complete the checklists using the Tier I and II CCC Standard Scoring Rubric
  • Complete inter-rater procedures when applicable
frequency of use
Frequency of Use
  • Consider resources available, including the time needed to:
    • Complete the instrument
    • Enter, analyze, graph, and disseminate data
    • Personnel available to support data collection
    • Additional data collection activities SBLT members and school staff participate in
  • General recommendations
    • Data collection aligned with school’s target content areas and grade levels
    • Aligned with the frequency of universal screening and progress monitoring data
  • Examples of two data analysis techniques
    • Calculate the mean rating for each item
    • Frequency distribution of each response option selected (i.e., Absent, Partially present, and Present)
  • Four domains
    • Problem Identification (Items 1-3)
    • Problem Analysis (Items 4-5)
    • Intervention Development and Implementation (Items 6a-7c)
    • Program Evaluation/RtI (Items 8-11)
examination of broad domains
Examination of Broad Domains
  • Start by examining broad domains to evaluate the extent to which permanent products indicate PS/RtI practices are being implemented
  • Examining the data graphically allows for educators to determine the extent to which the major steps of problem-solving are occurring
  • Examine implementation levels at each time point, as well as trends over time
identification of specific needs
Identification of Specific Needs
  • Tiers I and II CCC can be used to identify which components of problem-solving are more vs. less evident
  • Consider what training educators have received and how long implementation efforts have been occurring
  • Stakeholders can use this data to identify components of the problem-solving process that require additional support to be implemented
    • Professional development
    • Policies and procedures
  • Important to consider all aspects of the school/district system that might contribute to implementation
dissemination to stakeholders
Dissemination to Stakeholders
  • Important to disseminate implementation data to key school and district stakeholders as quickly and frequently as possible
  • Allow for stakeholders to discuss implementation levels, develop/alter implementation goals, and design strategies to increase implementation
dissemination to stakeholders cont
Dissemination to Stakeholders (cont.)
  • Sample guiding questions
    • What are the patterns?
    • Are there indicators that show zero implementation? Why?
    • How have you progressed in implementing the PS model with fidelity?
tier i ii ccc practice activity materials
Tier I & II CCCPractice Activity Materials
  • Tier I & II CCC Scoring Rubric
    • Domain 1
    • Questions 1-3
practice activity tier i ii ccc
Practice Activity: Tier I & II CCC
  • Domain 1
    • Problem Identification
  • What are you currently doing to examine these areas in your district or school?
    • What are the critical questions you ask?
    • What data sources do you have to answer them?
    • What questions do you already have that you cannot answer with available data?
    • How do you use the data you collect to inform decisions?
  • What areas need to be addressed as you return to your districts to plan? What are the priorities?
    • What critical questions do you need to start asking?
    • What data sources do you need?
    • How can you better use the data to inform decisions?
additional resources1
Additional Resources
  • MTSS Implementation Components: Ensuring Common Language & Understanding
  • http://www.floridarti.usf.edu/resources/format/pdf/mtss_q_and_a.pdf
additional resources cont
Additional Resources, cont.
  • Implementing a Multi-Tiered System of Support for Behavior: Recommended Practices for School and District Leaders
    • http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/pdfs/RtIB%20guide%20101811_final.pdf
  • Guiding Tools for Instructional Problem-Solving (GTIPS)
    • http://www.florida-rti.org/_docs/GTIPS.pdf
  • Florida’s PS/RtI Evaluation Tool Technical Assistance Manual – Revised (2012)
    • http://www.floridarti.usf.edu/resources/program_evaluation/ta_manual_revised2012/index.html