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28.3 United States Economic Imperialism. Main Idea: Empire Building —The United States put increasing economic and political pressure on Latin America during the 19 th century. Latin America After Independence. Colonial Legacy Most Latin Americans worked for large land owners.

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28.3 United States Economic Imperialism

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    28 3 united states economic imperialism

    28.3 United States Economic Imperialism

    Main Idea: Empire Building—The United States put increasing economic and political pressure on Latin America during the 19th century.

    latin america after independence
    Latin America After Independence
    • Colonial Legacy
      • Most Latin Americans worked for large land owners.
      • Wages low, prices high
      • Workers debt accumulated
      • Rich got richer, poor poorer
      • Governments took over Native or Church land and sold it to the rich.
      • Economic development lagged because of these conditions.
    latin america after independence1
    Latin America After Independence
    • Political Instability
      • A widespread problem in 19th century Latin America
      • Leaders gain fame and power during the struggle for independence.
      • After independence many became caudillos—military dictators or “strong men.”
      • By mid-1800s nearly all Latin American nations were ruled by caudillos.
      • Juan Vicente Gomez was a ruthless caudillo who ruled Venezuela for nearly 20 years
        • “All Venezuela is my cattle ranch.”
    latin america after independence2
    Latin America After Independence
    • Juan Vicente Gomez was a ruthless caudillo who ruled Venezuela for nearly 20 years
      • “All Venezuela is my cattle ranch.”
    • Notice that some caudillos like to where military uniforms with extensive decorations.
    latin america after independence3
    Latin America After Independence
    • Reform-minded president of Argentina, Domingo Sarmiento was the exception.
      • Improved education
      • Number of students doubled
    • Unfortunately, reformers did not stay in office long, and caudillos often seized control of governments.
    caudillos vs democracy
    Caudillos vs. Democracy
    • The caudillos faced little opposition.
    • The wealthy landowners usually supported them.
    • Latin Americans lacked a democratic tradition.
    • Voting rights were restricted to the upper and middle classes
    economies grow under foreign influence
    Economies Grow Under Foreign Influence
    • Britain and the United States became Latin America’s main trading partners after their independence from Spain and Portugal.
    • Old Products and New Markets
      • The development of the steamship and the building of railroads greatly increased Latin American trade.
      • Invention of refrigeration increased Latin America's exports.
      • The sale of perishable goods soared.
      • But foreign nations benefited far more from the increased trade than Latin America did.
        • Latin Americans imported European and North American manufactured goods.
        • They had little reason to develop their own manufacturing industries.
        • Without industry Latin America could not play a leading role on the world economic stage.
    outside investment and interference
    Outside Investment and Interference
    • Latin American countries did not re-invest in infrastructure or industry to become self-sufficient.
    • They often borrowed money at high interest rates to develop facilities for their export industries.
    • Owed Britain, France, the United States, and Germany.
    • Often unable to pay back their loans
    • Foreign lenders
      • threatened to collect the debt by force.
      • threatened to take over the facilities they had funded.
      • gained control of many Latin American industries.
    • This began a new era of economic imperialism.
    a latin american empire
    A Latin American Empire
    • The Monroe Doctrine
      • 1823, President James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine which states

    “the American continents . . . are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

    cuba declares independence
    Cuba Declares Independence
    • 1868—Cuba declares independence and fights a ten year war against Spain.
    • 1878—Cuba gives up this war.
    • 1895—JoseMarti returns to Cuba to launch another war against Spain.
    • By mid-1890’s, U.S. had substantial business holdings in Cuba.

    Jose Marti

    spanish american war
    Spanish-American War
    • 1898—U.S. joins the Cuban war for independence by fighting the Spanish-American War.
      • U.S. attacks the Philippine Islands first to take it from Spain.
      • An attack is launched on Cuba.
      • The Spanish defense collapses.
    • 1901—Cuba is declared an independent nation, but the United States installs a military government. Cubans come to resent U.S. interference.
    roosevelt s rough riders
    Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders”

    Theodore Roosevelt in his “Rough Rider” uniform (above), and with his regiment on top of San Juan Hill (left).

    the philippine american war
    The Philippine-American War
    • The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (1899–1902), was an armed conflict between a group of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.
    • In 1916, the United States granted the Philippines autonomy and promised eventual self-government, which came in 1934.
    • In 1946, following World War II, the Philippines was granted independence.
    emilio aguinaldo
    Emilio Aguinaldo
    • He led the fight for the independence of the Philippines.

    1899 political cartoon by Winsor McCay. Uncle Sam (representing the United States), gets entangled with rope around a tree labeled "Imperialism" while trying to subdue a bucking colt or mule labeled "Philippines" while a figure representing Spain walks off over the horizon carrying a bag labeled "$20,000,000".

    opposition to the philippine war
    Opposition to the Philippine War
    • Mark Twain famously opposed the war by using his influence in the press. He said the war betrayed the ideals of American democracy by not allowing the Filipino people to choose their own destiny.
    • In a diary passage removed by Twain's first biographical editor Thomas Bigelow Paine, Twain refers to American troops as “our uniformed assassins” and describes their killing of “six hundred helpless and weaponless savages” in the Philippines as “a long and happy picnic with nothing to do but sit in comfort and fire the Golden Rule into those people down there and imagine letters to write home to the admiring families, and pile glory upon glory.”
    the panama canal
    The Panama Canal
    • It was a 13,000 mile trip by sea around the continent of South America to reach the Pacific.
    • France had tried to build a canal across Panama, but failed.
    • The U.S. offered Columbia $10 million for the right to build a canal, but Columbia wanted more money.
    • The United States encouraged a rebellion in Panama. When Panama became independent from Columbia in 1903, the U.S. was able to begin work on the canal.
    • Canal opens in 1914.
    scientific advance and the panama canal
    Scientific Advance and the Panama Canal
    • Tropical diseases like malaria and yellow fever were the biggest hindrances to building the canal.
    • At times work stoppages occurred because there were so many workers sick from these diseases.
    • When it was conclusively discovered that mosquitoes carry these diseases a massive campaign occurred to reduce the mosquito population to prevent the spread of these diseases.
    • Swamps were drained and oil spread on standing water to kill mosquito larvae.
    • As a result the yellow fever epidemic was almost completely wiped out to that work could continue on the canal.

    William Crawford Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer to the Isthmian Commission

    the roosevelt corollary
    The Roosevelt Corollary
    • The Roosevelt Corollary gave the United States the right to be “an international police power” in the Western Hemisphere.
    • The United States used the Roosevelt Corollary many times in the following years to justify U.S. intervention in Latin America. U.S. troops occupied some countries for decades.