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  1. Marzano’s Instructional Strategies Mitchell New Teacher CohortJanuary 2008

  2. Categories of Instructional Strategies that Affect Student Achievement “Classroom Instruction that Works”, Marzano, Pickering and Pollock

  3. What does this mean? • 1.0 Standard Deviation • 35 percentile points • 2-4 grade equivalents • 100 SAT score points • 5 ACT composite score points • TIMMS would move from middle to the top five • Black and Wiliam (1998)

  4. Identifying Similarities & Differences Nonlinguistic Representation

  5. Expectations Key Understandings • The “Core” to all learning (Robert Marzano, 2001) • Highly Robust • engaging students in the learning process • Leads to deeper student understanding • Restructure understanding of content • Make new connections with things they already know • Clear up misunderstandings • Research indicates that there are four different forms of this activity that are highly effective.

  6. The Big Picture: • The brain works by building connections and associations • The brain remembers more easily things that are unusual

  7. How can we use this strategy to improve student achievement? • Model • presenting explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences • Guided & Independent practice • Stimulates divergent thinking • Reflection - Represent similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form • Nonlinguistic Representation

  8. Additional Classroom Keys • Multiple Exposure is KEY to deep understanding, to remembering, & to using information • Shift in modalities • Attention span = 1 minute per 1 year of age??? • 20 minutes (max. amount of attention span) • Don’t change topics – change HOW you work with the topic • Reflection • 20/2/20 rule • Re-explain & relate to prior knowledge within 20 minutes • Review &apply within 2 days • Reflect & re-apply within 20 days

  9. Comparing Classifying Creating metaphors Creating analogies 4 highly effective “forms” to identify similarities and differences

  10. SD Content Standards

  11. SD Content StandardsNon Linguistic Representations

  12. For example, Recognize and compare the following plane and solid geometric figures: square, rectangle, triangle, . . . SD Standard: 3.G.1.1 (Comprehension) Comparing The identification of important characteristics is the key to effective comparison. It is these characteristics that are then used as the basis to identify similarities and differences.-Marzano,2001

  13. Characteristics Items to be compared #1 #2 #3 Similarities Differences Similarities Differences Similarities Venn Diagram Differences Similarities Differences Comparison Matrix Graphic Organizers for Comparing -most useful when comparing only two items -more useful to provide a greater number of details

  14. For example, Invertebrates animals without a backbone or spinal column Vertebrates animals with a backbone or spinal column Classifying The process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the basis of their characteristics. It is critical to identify the rules that govern class or category membership. -Marzano,2001

  15. Graphic Organizers for Classification Table.doc Place Categories in column headings -most useful when all categories are equal in generality -more useful when all categories are not equal in generality

  16. Creating Metaphors For example, Love is a rose. The two items in a metaphor are connected by an abstract or non-literal relationship. -Marzano,2001

  17. Graphic Organizer for Metaphors Literal Pattern 1 Element 1 Literal Pattern 2 Element 2 Abstract It depicts that two elements have somewhat different literal patterns, but they share a common abstract pattern.

  18. Examples, Carpenter is to hammer as painter is to brush. Hot is to cold as night is to day. Oxygen is to humans as carbon dioxide is to plants. Core is to earth as nucleus is to atom. Creating Analogies Analogies help us to see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar. They increase our understanding of new information (most complex). -Marzano,2001

  19. Graphic Organizers for Analogies Is to Relationship Is to

  20. Create Digital Graphic Organizers • Build charts & diagrams with software • Word • Publisher • PowerPoint • Inspiration • Excel

  21. Virtual Tools • • • Visual Ranking Tool • • Seeing Reason Tool • • Online science/math simulations, games, etc. •

  22. Performance Task • Teachers will design, implement, collect evidence, and reflect upon a lesson that utilizes the strategy “Identifying Similarities and Differences”. • Assignment for next time • Design & implement • Collect evidence (student work) • Bring that evidence

  23. ESA3 Teacher Resources • Technology Resources for Marzano’s Instructional Strategies •