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Literacy Design Collaborative

Literacy Design Collaborative

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Literacy Design Collaborative

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  1. Professional DevelopmentVocabulary Literacy Design Collaborative

  2. Outcomes • Learn about vocabulary acquisition • Review research findings on vocabulary instruction • View instructional strategies related to vocabulary instruction • Develop or revise a mini-task for an LDC module

  3. Session Outline 1. Introduction 2. Reading Assignment 3. Research 4. Research to Action - Activities 5. Research to Action - Video Clip 6. Take Action - Assignment/mini-task 7. Resources

  4. Reading Assignment • Please go to the link below and read pp. 32-35 of Appendix A from the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects • Guiding Questions on the next page •

  5. Guiding Questions 1. What research based practice is recommended for students to increase and retain new vocabulary? 2. Think of examples where you might provide direct instruction for Tier one, Tier Two and Tier Three words? 3. What process is most effective for acquiring Tier Three words in content learning?

  6. Research

  7. A Vocabulary Riddle To comprehend what we read, at least 95% of the words must be recognized automatically. How is this possible given the number of words in English?

  8. The Vocabulary Catch-22 Students need to learn more words to read well, but they need to read well to learn more words. McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers. Perspectives, 30(1), 13-16.

  9. The Importance of Vocabulary Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later. Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934-945.

  10. Why is a large vocabulary associated with good comprehension?

  11. The Instrumental Hypothesis Vocabulary aids comprehension by providing the reader with a tool, or instrument.

  12. The Knowledge Hypothesis It’s not so much the words themselves that help, but the knowledge they represent.

  13. The Aptitude Hypothesis Comprehension and vocabulary are correlated “not because one causes the other, but because both reflect a more general underlying verbal aptitude.” – Stahl & Nagy (2005)

  14. The Access Hypothesis • A larger vocabulary means • deeper understanding of words (including nuances of meaning) • quicker access to words in the lexicon • flexibility in deciding among multiple meanings

  15. The Reciprocal Hypothesis Having a bigger vocabulary makes you a better reader Reading more gives you a bigger vocabulary Being a better reader makes it possible for you to read more

  16. Four Obstacles to Acquiring a Large Vocabulary The number of words in English is very large Academic English differs from the kind of English used at home Word knowledge involves far more than learning definitions Sources of information about words are often hard to use or are unhelpful Stahl & Nagy (2005)

  17. How do we learn words from experiences?

  18. Gavagai An aborigine points to a running rabbit and says “Gavagai.” Can you infer the word’s meaning?

  19. Meaning Each encounter with a word helps a student narrow its meaning. For example, if he hears the word gavagaiused to refer to a sitting rabbit, the student will infer that running is not connected with the meaning.

  20. Meaning Young children learn word meanings from one-on-one interactions with parents and siblings. These interactions may be rich or poor. Consider two examples based on Hart and Risley’s (1995) comparison of families of different socioeconomic levels.

  21. Yeah. Do I have to eat these?

  22. “Motherese” Yes, because they have vitamins that will help you grow and get stronger. Do I have to eat these?

  23. What does it mean to know a word?

  24. A Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledge A vague sense of the meaning Narrow knowledge with aid of context Good knowledge but shaky recall Rich, decontextualized knowledge, connected to other word meanings

  25. Lexicon That part of long-term memory devoted to word knowledge. For example, when we read the word cat, this word is accessed in the lexicon, along with the various connections we have associated with it.

  26. How is a word stored in the lexicon?

  27. cat

  28. c-a-t cat /kat/

  29. “meow” c-a-t cat /kat/ 4 legs pet

  30. animal “meow” c-a-t cat /kat/ 4 legs pet lion

  31. animal mammal “meow” c-a-t cat /kat/ 4 legs pet lion

  32. animal mammal “meow” c-a-t cat /kat/ 4 legs pet lion

  33. animal mammal “meow” c-a-t cat dog /kat/ 4 legs pet lion

  34. animal mammal “meow” c-a-t cat dog /kat/ 4 legs pet lion

  35. animal mammal “meow” c-a-t cat dog 4 legs /kat/ pet lion

  36. Dual Coding Theory Two systems are involved in learning words. One contains verbal information, the other non-verbal (images). When we learn a word, real-world images that we associate with the concept are also stored. Accessing a word in the lexicon therefore involves both the verbal system and non-verbal (imagery) system. ~ Moral ~ When teaching new words, use pictures and other images where possible.

  37. New meanings and even new pronunciations of a word may be added to a student’s lexicon over time. prodúce próduce produce to make Raw veggies

  38. “Lean” For example, the word lean is initially learned around fourth grade as the act of allowing one object to rest against another. It is typically not until eighth grade that children learn that one person might lean on someone else for emotional support.

  39. lean To rest one object against another To rely on another person for support K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ••• Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28-40). New York: Guilford.

  40. Is wide reading enough?

  41. Why Wide Reading Is Not Enough Why Wide Reading Is Enough Context is generally unreliable as a means of inferring word meanings. Most words occur too infrequently to provide the number of exposures needed to learn them. Vocabulary size and the amount a child reads are correlated. Direct instruction cannot possibly account for the number of word meanings children acquire.

  42. “There is no obvious reason why direct vocabulary instruction and wide reading cannot work in tandem.” – Marzano (2004, p. 112) Robert Marzano

  43. What are some of the guiding principles of teaching vocabulary?

  44. Guiding Principle Pre-teach key words to improve comprehension.

  45. Provide more than definitions. Guiding Principle

  46. Definitions Are Only a Start Some teachers fall into the trap of assuming that if a child can match a word to its definition, the words meaning has been acquired.

  47. WORD = DEFINITION Stimulus Response

  48. WORD = DEFINITION StimulusResponse “Truncate” = “to cut off”