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Professional Development Vocabulary. Literacy Design Collaborative. Outcomes. Learn about vocabulary acquisition Review research findings on vocabulary instruction View instructional strategies related to vocabulary instruction Develop or revise a mini-task for an LDC module .

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slide1

Professional DevelopmentVocabulary

Literacy Design Collaborative

outcomes
Outcomes
  • Learn about vocabulary acquisition
  • Review research findings on vocabulary instruction
  • View instructional strategies related to vocabulary instruction
  • Develop or revise a mini-task for an LDC module
session outline
Session Outline

1. Introduction

2. Reading Assignment

3. Research

4. Research to Action - Activities

5. Research to Action - Video Clip

6. Take Action - Assignment/mini-task

7. Resources

reading assignment
Reading Assignment
  • Please go to the link below and read pp. 32-35 of Appendix A from the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
  • Guiding Questions on the next page
  • http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_A.pdf
guiding questions
Guiding Questions

1. What research based practice is recommended for students to increase and retain new vocabulary?

2. Think of examples where you might provide direct instruction for Tier one, Tier Two and Tier Three words?

3. What process is most effective for acquiring Tier Three words in content learning?

slide7

A Vocabulary Riddle

To comprehend what we read, at least 95% of the words must be recognized automatically.

How is this possible given the number of words in English?

slide8

The Vocabulary Catch-22

Students need to learn more words to read well, but they need to read well to learn more words.

McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers.

Perspectives, 30(1), 13-16.

slide9

The Importance of Vocabulary

Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later.

Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934-945.

slide11

The Instrumental Hypothesis

Vocabulary aids comprehension by providing the reader with a tool, or instrument.

the knowledge hypothesis
The Knowledge Hypothesis

It’s not so much the words themselves that help, but the knowledge they represent.

the aptitude hypothesis
The Aptitude Hypothesis

Comprehension and vocabulary are correlated “not because one causes the other, but because both reflect a more general underlying verbal aptitude.”

– Stahl & Nagy (2005)

slide14

The Access Hypothesis

  • A larger vocabulary means
  • deeper understanding of words (including nuances of meaning)
  • quicker access to words in the lexicon
  • flexibility in deciding among multiple meanings
slide15

The Reciprocal Hypothesis

Having a bigger

vocabulary makes

you a better reader

Reading more

gives you a bigger

vocabulary

Being a better reader makes it possible for you to read more

slide16

Four Obstacles to Acquiring a Large Vocabulary

The number of words in English is very large

Academic English differs from the kind of English used at home

Word knowledge involves far more than learning definitions

Sources of information about words are often hard to use or are unhelpful

Stahl & Nagy (2005)

gavagai
Gavagai

An aborigine points to a running rabbit and says “Gavagai.” Can you infer the word’s meaning?

meaning
Meaning

Each encounter with a word helps a student narrow its meaning. For example, if he hears the word gavagaiused to refer to a sitting rabbit, the student will infer that running is not connected with the meaning.

meaning1
Meaning

Young children learn word meanings from one-on-one interactions with parents and siblings. These interactions may be rich or poor. Consider two examples based on Hart and Risley’s (1995) comparison of families of different socioeconomic levels.

slide21

Yeah.

Do I have to

eat these?

slide22

“Motherese”

Yes, because they have vitamins that will help you grow and get stronger.

Do I have to

eat these?

slide24

A Continuum of Word Knowledge

No knowledge

A vague sense of the meaning

Narrow knowledge with aid of context

Good knowledge but shaky recall

Rich, decontextualized knowledge,

connected to other word meanings

slide25

Lexicon

That part of long-term memory devoted to word knowledge.

For example, when we read the word cat, this word is accessed in the lexicon, along with the various connections we have associated with it.

slide28

c-a-t

cat

/kat/

slide29

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

/kat/

4 legs

pet

slide30

animal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

/kat/

4 legs

pet

lion

slide31

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

/kat/

4 legs

pet

lion

slide32

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

/kat/

4 legs

pet

lion

slide33

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

dog

/kat/

4 legs

pet

lion

slide34

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

dog

/kat/

4 legs

pet

lion

slide35

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

dog

4 legs

/kat/

pet

lion

slide36

Dual Coding Theory

Two systems are involved in learning words. One contains verbal information, the other non-verbal (images). When we learn a word, real-world images that we associate with the concept are also stored. Accessing a word in the lexicon therefore involves both the verbal system and non-verbal (imagery) system.

~ Moral ~

When teaching new words, use pictures and other images where possible.

slide37

New meanings and even new pronunciations of a word may be added to a student’s lexicon over time.

prodúce

próduce

produce

to make

Raw veggies

slide39
“Lean”

For example, the word lean is initially learned around fourth grade as the act of allowing one object to rest against another. It is typically not until eighth grade that children learn that one person might lean on someone else for emotional support.

slide40
lean

To rest

one

object

against

another

To rely on

another

person

for

support

K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 •••

Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28-40). New York: Guilford.

slide42

Why Wide Reading Is Not Enough

Why Wide Reading Is Enough

Context is generally unreliable as a means of inferring word meanings.

Most words occur too infrequently to provide the number of exposures needed to learn them.

Vocabulary size and

the amount a child reads are correlated.

Direct instruction cannot possibly account for the number of word meanings children acquire.

slide43

“There is no obvious reason why direct vocabulary instruction and wide reading cannot work in tandem.”

– Marzano (2004, p. 112)

Robert

Marzano

guiding principle
Guiding Principle

Pre-teach key words to

improve comprehension.

slide48

Definitions Are Only a Start

Some teachers fall into the trap of assuming that if a child can match a word to its definition, the words meaning has been acquired.

slide49

WORD = DEFINITION

Stimulus Response

slide50

WORD = DEFINITION

StimulusResponse

“Truncate” = “to cut off”

slide51

WORD = DEFINITION

StimulusResponse

“Truncate” = “to cut off”

“She truncated the lights.”

slide55

antennae

leg

thorax

wing

abdomen

In content areas, clustering words is natural!

group 1
Group 1
  • Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
  • Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
  • This hour is uninterrupted
group 2
Group 2

The second group receives the same instruction

group 11
Group 1
  • Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
  • Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
group 21
Group 2
  • Receives 1 hour of direct instruction on 20 new words
  • Spends 1 full hour of intense review on all 20 words
  • This hour is broken into 6 10-minute sessions, 1 per month for 6 months
slide65

Assuming that no one encountered any of the 20 words again, which group would do better on a test after a delay of 10 years?

nrp findings on vocabulary
NRP Findings on Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary improves general comprehension ability

Pre-teaching vocabulary helps both word learning and comprehension of a selection

Much vocabulary is acquired through incidental exposure

Repeated exposures in a variety of contexts are important

nrp findings on vocabulary1
NRP Findings on Vocabulary

A combination of definitions and contextual examples works better than either one alone

Many instructional methods can be effective in teaching vocabulary

Instructional methods should result in active engagement

Both direct and indirect methods should be used

nrp findings on vocabulary2
NRP Findings on Vocabulary

The more connections that are made to a word, the better the word tends to be learned

Computer applications can be effective

The effectiveness of some instructional methods depends on the age or ability of the student

what the nrp d oesn t k now a bout v ocabulary i nstruction
What the NRP Doesn’t Know About Vocabulary Instruction

Which methods work best with students of different ages and abilities?

How can technology best be used to teach vocabulary?

How is vocabulary best integrated with comprehension instruction?

What combinations of instructional methods tend to work best?

What are the best ways to assess vocabulary?

slide74

Some Research-Based Techniques

  • Read-Alouds
  • Semantic Feature Analysis
  • Graphic Organizers
  • List-Group-Label
  • Semantic Maps (word webs)
  • Word Lines
  • Word Sorts
  • Possible Sentences
golf n
golf n.
  • a good walk spoiled (Mark Twain)
  • 2. a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course (Webster)
slide77

golf n.

…a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course

This definition, like nearly all definitions of nouns, has two components.

slide78

classdistinguishing features

a game in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course

slide79

classdistinguishing features

a game

in which a player using special clubs attempts to sink a ball with as few strokes as possible into each of the 9 or 18 successive holes on a course

why use graphic organizers
Why Use Graphic Organizers?
  • They are easy to construct and discuss
  • Technical terms can be taught in clusters
  • They help kids “see” abstract content
  • They enhance recall and understanding
  • They have an impressive research base
act 1 exposition act 2 complication act 3 climax act 4 resolution act 5 conclusion
Act 1 Exposition Act 2 Complication Act 3 Climax Act 4 Resolution Act 5 Conclusion

Shakespearean Tragedy

slide86

Complication

Exposition ComplicationClimaxResolutionConclusion

slide87

Climax

Complication

Resolution

ExpositionComplicationClimaxResolutionConclusion

slide88

Rising

Action

Climax

Complication

Resolution

ExpositionComplicationClimaxResolutionConclusion

slide89

Falling

Action

Rising

Action

Climax

Complication

Resolution

ExpositionComplicationClimaxResolutionConclusion

slide90

egg

  • pupa

adult

larva

slide92

drugs

stimulants

depressants

alcohol

barbiturates

caffeine

Dexedrine

slide93

drugs

stimulants

depressants

caffeine Dexedrine

alcohol barbiturates

slide96

Musical Instruments

windnonwind

brass woodwind

slide97

Musical Instruments

wind nonwind

brass woodwind string percussion

slide98

Musical Instruments

wind nonwind

brass woodwind string percussion

trumpet clarinet violin drum

slide101

Frog and Toad Curious George

No people

Animal

Characters

Could

happen

Animals

talk

slide103

James

Roosevelt

(1828-1900)

Sara

Delano

(1855-1941)

Elliott

Roosevelt

(1860?-94)

Anna

Hall

(1863-92)

Franklin

Delano

Roosevelt

(1882-1945)

Anna

Eleanor

Roosevelt

(1884-1962)

Anna James Elliott FDR, Jr. John

b. 1906 b. 1907 b. 1910 b. 1914 b. 1916

list group label
List-Group-Label

Hilda Taba’s idea later led to many related techniques.

slide105

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.

slide106

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.

slide107

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.

slide108

no legs garter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

trees

holes

ground

slide109

no legs garter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

trees

holes

ground

slide110

garter

boa

copperhead

cobra

coral

Thing Snakes Might Have

rattle

scales

fang

no legs

venom

tail

trees

holes

ground

no legs garter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

trees

holes

ground

slide111

Kinds of Snakes

garter

boa

copperhead

cobra

coral

Things Snakes Might Have

rattle

scales

fang

no legs

venom

tail

Where Snakes Are Found

trees

holes

ground

no legs garter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

trees

holes

ground

semantic maps
Semantic Maps
  • (Word Webs)
slide113

Brainstorming

Students offer ideas related to a topic

Mapping

Teacher and students form categories and map the words into a diagram

Reading

Students read a nonfiction selection

Completing the Map

Teacher and students revisit the map and together refine and expand it

slide114

rattle no legs

scales venom

fang tail

Things Snakes

Might Have

Snakes

garter

boa

copperhead

cobra

coral

Kinds

Where

trees

holes

ground

slide116

animal

mammal

“meow”

c-a-t

cat

dog

/kat/

4 legs

lion

pet

slide126

Open Sort

Categories are not given

thorax pupa

abdomen antennae

wing larva

adult head

egg leg

slide127

Closed Sort

Parts Stages

slide128

Closed Sort

PartsStages

thorax

abdomen

wing

head

leg

antennae

pupa

Egg

larva

adult

slide130

Possible Sentences

  • Present a list of 8-12 words the students will encounter in the new text
  • Add a few familiar terms
  • Ask for sentences containing at least two of the words
  • Teach the text
  • Return to the sentences
  • Together decide whether they are correct or can be edited to make them so
word cards
Word Cards
  • Students need to focus on words for more than a few seconds to increase understanding
  • Students “do the work!”
  • Provide 5x7 note cards and have students divide in 4 quadrants
vocabulary card frayer model
Vocabulary Card: FrayerModel

Essential Characteristics

Nonessential Characteristics

word

Non-exemplars

Examples

marzano s 6 step p rocess for d irect vocabulary instruction
Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct Vocabulary Instruction
  • Teacher provides a description and example of the new term
  • Students restate the explanation in their own terms
  • Students create a non-linguistic representation of the word
slide134

Marzano’s 6-step Process for Direct Vocabulary Instruction

  • Students do activities with the identified words to ensure distributed practice and multiple exposures
  • Students discuss the terms with one another
                  • Students use games to “play” with the words.

In addition, he recommends the use of a vocabulary notebook for each student.

Marzono, R. (2004) Building BackgroundKnowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VO: ASCD.

integrating vocabulary instruction i n the content area
Integrating Vocabulary Instruction in the Content Area

1. Intentionally select words that are worth teaching

2. Model use of the selected words

3. Allow time for students to use the words immediately after modeling

integrating vocabulary instruction in the content area
Integrating Vocabulary Instruction In the Content Area

4. Give tasks that promote application and personalization

5. Engage students in authentic reading tasks, daily, focusing on high-frequency prefixes, suffixes and root words

(Fisher & Frey, 2008)

selecting words to teach
Selecting Words to Teach

“Research shows that some words can be learned from reading, but not until students encounter the new words repeatedly-through reading many other texts, verbal discussion,….”

Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2008)

slide139

Word Selection

With the idea that students can learn (successfully) eight to ten words a week, how can we select the words that are worth teaching?

Isabel Beck (2002) and Fischer and Frey (2008) suggest choosing words from Tier 2 & Tier 3 that fit the following guidelines….

representation
Representation
  • Is the word critical to understanding the text?
  • Is the word representative of a family of words?
  • Does the word represent an idea that is necessary to understand related concepts?
repeatability
Repeatability
  • Does the word occur repeatedly in the text?
  • Will the word be used again this year?
transportability
Transportability
  • Will the word be used in discussion?
  • Will the word be required in writing?
  • Will the word be used in other content areas?
contextual analysis
Contextual Analysis
  • Will students be able to figure out the meaning using context clues or is direct instruction needed?
structural analysis
Structural Analysis
  • Will students use structural analysis to determine the meaning or do they need direct instruction?
cognitive load
Cognitive Load
  • Have I identified an appropriate number of words that students will be able to integrate and apply the meanings of the words?
choice literacy podcast
Choice Literacy Podcast

Learn more about vocabulary instruction and how it is connected to the Common Core Standards and reading comprehension.

https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/doug-fisher-on-vocabulary/id488875239?i=111953207

tier 1 words
Tier 1 Words

Some learners new to English may also need background knowledge and support in Tier 1 words. This is a link to a word list that includes 850 words that are phonetically regular, easy to pronounce and could be a boost for English learners.

Ogden’s Basic English Word List

http://ogden.basic-english.org/words.html

slide157

“In the long run, effective intervention will involve extended vocabulary work as a normal part the curriculum.”

Andy

Biemiller

Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28-40). New York: Guilford.

online dictionaries
Online Dictionaries
  • General Words: www.merriam-webster.com
  • Visual Dictionary: www.infovisual.info
  • Rhyming Words: www.rhymezone.com
  • Spanish Language: www.spanishdict.com
  • World Languages: www.wordreference.com
  • Thesaurus: www.bartleby.com/thesauri
slide159

References

  • Baumann, J.F., & Kame’enui, E.J. (2004). Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. New York: Guilford.
  • Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.R., & Johnston, F. Words their way (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
  • Beck, I.L., McKeown, (2008). Rev It Up: Robust Encounters with Vocabulary. Orlando, Florida: Steck-Vaughn.
  • Blachowicz, C., & Cobb, C., (2007). Teaching Vocabulary Across the Content Areas. Alexandria, VA : ASCD.
slide160

References

  • Fisher, D. & Frey,N. (2008). Word Wise Content Rich: Five Essential Steps to Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Porstsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Marzano, R. (2004) Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  • Nagy, W.E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: IRA.Erlbaum.
  • Stahl, S.A. (1999). Vocabulary development. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
  • Stahl, S.A., & Kapinus, B.A. (2001). Word power: What every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: NEA.
  • Stahl, S.A., & Nagy, W.E. (2005). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.