Carroll Chapter 3 Gender
Definitions • Sex: Biology, genes, anatomy • Gender: Psychology • Identity - self-perceived gender • How do we form our gender identity? • BIOLOGY v. SOCIAL LEARNING
Gender Formation: Social Learning • Learn what it means to be a boy or girl • Social and cultural influences key • Gender roles • Parents & teachers • Respond to children ala gender roles • Toys, play behaviors, classroom, crying • Model & reinforce gender appropriate behaviors • 18 months child has GI & it perpetuates • Impacts life trajectory (education, career, sexuality)
Gender Formation: Social Learning • Media adds to/elaborates early GI (sexuality) • Magazines, TV, movies • MTV & music videos (key for youth) • What do music videos tell us about sexuality?
Gender Formation: Sex Surgery • Tabula Rosa view of gender at birth • All due to social influences (discount BIO) • Any child could develop a male or female GI • Born w/ ambiguous genitals • SL approach says gender assignment • Surgery and raise as chosen gender • Video
Group Activity V: Sex Surgery • Groups of 4-5 (mixed genders) • Summarize responses to questions • Share with class • TURN IN AFTER CLASS!
Group Activity V: Sex Surgery • You’re child is born w/ ambiguous genitalia. The doctor recommends assigning a gender & surgically modifying the genitals. Would you do as the doctor advises? Explain. • If yes what gender would you choose & why? • Do you think this sort of procedure is ethical? • Should we let children be intersexual? Are there > 2 genders?
Gender Formation: Biology • Sex (& ~ gender) differentiated prenatally • Chromosomes (XX, XY) -> • Gonadal development (testes, ovaries) -> • Hormone production (testosterone, estrogens) -> • Reproductive organs (penis, vagina) • Brain development (some sex differences)
Gender Formation: Biology • Prenatal hormone exposure key for GI • Influences brain development -> later GI • XX - estrogen, XY - testosterone • Atypical prenatal differentiation yield mix • AIS - XY but not sensitive to testosterone • Female organs & GI • FAF - XX but excess of testosterone • Ambiguous organs, female GI but dissatisfaction & male orientation
Gender Formation: Biology • Biological differences reflected in behavior • Males more (physically) aggressive • Women better at verbal, emotional tasks • Denser corpus callosum • Men better at spatial, analytical tasks • Women more nurturing
Transsexualism • GI opposite of biological sex • Feels like a woman trapped in a man’s body • Feels like a man trapped in a woman’s body
Transsexualism • Sexual orientation independent GI • Many hetero (within GI) • F->M desire females (~all) • M->F desire males (~most) Gender Identity Sexual Orientation
Transsexualism • Etiology (unclear) • Not genetic disorder • Brain differences (prenatal hormones) • Zhou et a., 1995 - M->F had female sized hypoth • Not adult hormones levels • Social learning
Transsexualism • Some satisfied with assuming the G Roles • Many want changed body and G Roles • Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) • 1. Psychological therapy • 2. Lifestyle change • 3. Hormone therapy • 4. Surgery • M->F easiest (arousal, O possible)
Female to Male Transsexual • Sex reassignment • F->M hard (O increases)
SRS Outcomes (Cohen-Kettenis & Gooren, 1999) • Outcomes measures • Objective (employment, housing, relationships) • Subjective (gender dysphoria, life satisfaction) • Dozens of studies reveal positive outcomes • Majority satisfied with results of SRS • MF: 71%-87% • FM: 90%-97% • Unsatisfied due to improper diagnosis, poor real-life test, poor surgery
Reaction Paper V : Transsexualism • How would you react if one of your classmates told you he or she had had sex reassignment surgery? If your date told you? What questions would you want to ask him or her?
Conclusion • Gender and sex different and at times inconsistent • Intersexuals, transsexuals • Gender identity influenced by social & biological forces • Gender more in the brain than between the legs