Evolution . By Natural Selection. The Idea of Progress. The spirit of the times in 19 th century, England especially. Derives from the Enlightenment and Rationalism and the Industrial Revolution. Steady upward direction to all life. Like a machine, but directed toward an end: perfection.
By Natural Selection
Above: A giant, extinct, edentate, reconstructed from fossil remains. Below, a living armadillo.
Galapagos Islands circled
The Galapagos Islands.
An illustration of Malthus’ projections for Britain in the 19th century.
Thomas Henry Huxley