Chapter 8: The Unification of China
Chapter 8: The Unification of China Lao Tse: Wuwei Dao “The Way” Passive and yielding Period of the Warring States: 403-221 BCE Qin Dynasty 221-207 BCE Former Han Dynasty 206BCE- 9CE Han Wudi 141-87 BCE Wang Mang 9-23 CE Later Han Dynasty 25-220 CE China Under the Qin Dynasty Junzi: superior individual Ren: courtesy Li: propriety Xiao: filial piety Emperor Qin Shihuangdi: Legalism Confucius
Confucianism Daoism Legalism • Active • (Confucius) • Ren- humanity, • benevolence, kindness • Li- propriety, respect, • courtesy • Xiao- filial piety • R-S, H-W, B-B, P-C, F-F • Moral and ethical belief • Govt should be led by junzi • who wouldn’t let personal • interests influence judgment • Leaders different aspects of • Confucianism over time • Compatible with other belief systems Active Unyielding No concern for understanding principles that govern nature or society No concern for ethics Harsh social discipline Collective responsibility before the law Supported agriculture and the military Inactive, Passive (Lao tse) Philosophical introspection/ harmony with nature Dao = “The Way”: governs the world Wuwei: disengagement Yin: (dark, female, soft,passive) Yang: (light, male, hard,active) Ambition and activism = chaos
Terra Cotta Army of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi Coming to the National Geographic Museum: Washington DC November 19, 2009-Mrach 31, 2010 !!!!
Extremely varied- narrow fertile strip by the coastline- Hills and deserts to the N and W- geography encourages isolation. Xiongnu: Nomads to the North Theme 1 Confucianism= active, moral and ethical, practical method, five relationships (Ren, Li, Xiao), supported idea of junzi Daoism=passive, yielding, withdrawal, nature contains divine impulse that directs all life, retreat from active world of politics Legalism= active, discouraged education, reflection, didn’t care about principles governing the world or nature= concerns of the state, Solution to chaos = strict laws Theme 2 Qin Shihuangdi =Great Wall,built roads, disarmed regional armies, built bridges, crossbow, standardized Chinese script, standardized weights and measures, coins, laws= first emperor of China Han = iron metallurgy, silk (expansion of), paper production, salt, textiles = (before 100 CE) = The Silk Road Han (Han Wudi) = Confucian education system Theme 2
Theme 3 Expanded 1st time Beyond Yellow River Theme 4 Theme 5
Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer Society A / Person A/ Issue A= Confucianism Society B/ Person B/ Issue B = Daoism What is the question asking you to compare/contrast? (SOAPSTONE) A and B, definition of “good” government, relationship of individual and government THESIS: Similarities of A and B Differences between A and B Reasons for the Differences and/or Similarities?
Bronze Wheeled Chariot for Imperial Officials: Qin and Han Dynasties • What does the chariot indicate about the status of officials in China? • What can you determine about the artist? • What does this sculpture say about technology in the Qin and Han Dynasties? • As an art piece, how would you recognize this as Chinese? • What additional piece of information would you like to have to help your analysis? • (and how would that information help you?) • Presence of four horses with fine harnesses and a finely crafted 2 wheeled cart • Very skilled- two kinds of metallurgy: silver and bronze; • Refinement of the wheeled vehicle; presence of silver and bronze • Realistic quality, chunky horses, composition of bronze; typical Chinese dress of driver, flat angled roof of cart is reminiscent of flat lined roof of Chinese houses
Population Growth in the Han Dynasty • General prosperity • Increased agricultural productivity • Taxes small part of overall income • Produce occasionally spoiling in state granaries Extent of Han Empire during reign of Han Wudi 87 BCE