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Chapter 17 and 18. China and its neighbors, Japan and the Koreas. China – Physical Geography. China’s capital city is Beijing. China is the 3 rd largest country in area. It is slightly larger than the United States.

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chapter 17 and 18

Chapter 17 and 18

China and its neighbors, Japan and the Koreas

china physical geography
China – Physical Geography
  • China’s capital city is Beijing.
  • China is the 3rd largest country in area.
    • It is slightly larger than the United States.
  • The Himalaya, Kunlun Shan, Tian Shan, and Atlay are all mountain ranges in China.
  • The Plateau of Tibet is the largest plateau in the world; it is also called the “Roof of the World.”
    • Pandas, golden monkeys and other rare animals are found on the eastern end of the plateau.
  • The Taklimakan Desert lies in northwestern China
  • The Gobi Desert lies in northern China and Southern Mongolia.
  • The east side of China contains fertile plains, and 90% of the population lives in these areas.
  • Snubnose Golden Monkey Video
china physical geography1
China – Physical Geography
  • China has 3 major rivers running through it – The Yangtze River, the Yellow River, and the Xi River.
    • China’s most fertile soil is found in valleys formed by these rivers.
  • The Chinese call the Yellow River “China’s sorrow” because its flooding causes massive deaths and property damage.
  • The Chinese have build dams and dikes, or high banks of soil, to control the flooding.
  • Eastern China is part of the Ring of Fire and is susceptible to earthquakes because it lies on a fault, or hole in the earth’s crust.
china demographics
China - Demographics
  • China’s population is about 1.29 billion, which is about 1/5 of the world’s population.
  • 92% of China’s population belongs to the ethnic group Han Chinese.
china economy
China - Economy
  • China has been a Communist State since 1949. Communism is a system of government that has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  • Recently, the governmental control over the economy has been reduced; people were given more freedom to decide which professions they could enter as well as what products, crops and services they can grow and sell.
  • These changes have allowed China’s economy to boom.
  • While only 10% of China’s land is arable, China is the largest producer of rice and near the top in producing tea, wheat and potatoes.
  • China has encouraged foreign investment in their country. Investors expect two benefits: they can pay Chinese workers lower wages, and there are hundreds of millions of people to consume their goods.
china economy1
China - Economy
  • The changes to China’s economy have enabled many citizens to improve their standard of living, while other citizens have seen their standard of living drop.
  • The rapid industrialization had increased the pollution dramatically. This pollution leads to lung cancer, which is the number one cause of death in China.
  • Hong Kong and Macau are major industrial cities in China. They were both controlled by European countries until the late 1990s.
china history
China - History
  • China’s civilization is more than 4,000 years old.
  • Until the 1900s, China was ruled by emperors and empresses that lived in the Imperial Palace in Beijing.
    • A dynasty is a line of rulers from a single family that rule until they are overthrown.
  • China is protected by natural barriers on its eastern, western, and southern borders; the northern border was the weakest.
    • In response, the Chinese began construction of the Great Wall of China about 2,200 years ago. Eventually, it spanned more than 4,000 miles.
      • 4,000 miles is about the distance between Alabama and England.
china religions and philosophies
China – Religions and Philosophies
  • Confucius (Kongfuzi) was a moral philosopher that lived around 500 B.C.E..
    • Confucius taught that people should be honest, polite, brave and wise
    • Respect for parents, elders and government leaders were also part of his philosophy, Confucianism.
  • Laozi was another philosopher around the same time as Confucius.
    • His teaching were called Daoism. It involves living in harmony with nature.
  • Buddhism came to China around 100 C.E.; this religion taught that meditation, wisdom, and morality could help people find relief from life’s problems.
  • Over time, the Chinese blended and mixed Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism together.
china history1
China - History
  • In the 1700s and 1800s, Europeans desperately desired Chinese goods such as silk, tea, and pottery.
    • The United Kingdom and other European countries used military power to force China to trade.
  • The dynasty was overthrown in 1911 and replaced by a republic.
  • The republic was overthrown in 1949 and replaced by communism.
china government
China - Government
  • After 1949, the Communist government took over the factories, relocated farms to large government farms, and women joined the workforce.
  • People that opposed Communism were executed and many individual freedoms were lost.
  • In 1989, 100,000 students and workers gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to protest; they demanded democracy and political reforms.
    • The government responded by sending in tanks and soldiers to quell the protest. The government killed and injured thousands and arrested thousands more.
china government1
China - Government
  • Leaders in many countries have criticized China for their treatment of political opposition.
    • They accuse China of not respecting human rights, or basic rights everyone should have, like freedom of speech.
  • China took over Tibet in 1950, and fought off the Tibetan rebellion in 1959. Tibetans have demanded independence since then.
  • The Dalai Lama is the Buddhist religious leader of Tibet; he lives in exile and travels the world trying to win support for his people and cause.
china s neighbors
China’s Neighbors
  • Chapter 15, Section 3
    • Taiwan
    • Mongolia
  • Taipei is the national capital and home to 2.6 million of Taiwan’s people.
  • Taiwan’s population is 22.6 million.
  • Taiwan has one of the world’s most prosperous economies.
    • They are involved in high-technology industries and manufacturing.
  • Their agriculture industry produces a surplus of food.
  • Taiwan is technically part of China, although Taiwan practices a democratic form of government since the 1990s.
  • Ulaanbaatar is the capital city of Mongolia. About half of Mongolia’s 2.5 million people live here.
  • “Land of the Blue Sky” is Mongolia’s nickname because of its more than 260 days of sunlight.
  • Its climate is one of extremes. It has very hot summers and freezing winters.
    • Rainfall is scarce and fierce dust storms occur.
  • In the past, most Mongolians were nomads; nomads are people that travel from place to place with herds of animals. They lived in yurts, or portable residences.
  • Mongolians were known for their skills in raising and riding horses.
  • Genghis Khan led the Mongols to conquests over 80 percent of Eurasia in the 1300s. It was the largest empire in human history.
  • China ruled Mongolia from the 1700s to the 1900s.
  • In 1924, Mongolia gained its independence from China and instituted a communist government in the model of the Soviet Union.
  • In 1990, Mongolia became a democratic country and they have slowly torn down the government control in favor of free enterprise.
  • Most Mongols are Buddhist.
  • Mongolian Singing involves producing notes from deep in the throat.
japan and the koreas chapter 18
Japan and the Koreas – Chapter 18
  • Section 1
    • Japan – Past and Present
  • Section 2
    • The Two Koreas
  • Tokyo is the capital of Japan.
  • No part of Japan is more than 70 miles from the sea.
  • Japan is part of the Ring of Fire and its people have to deal with earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis.
  • Japan is an archipelago, or group of islands off the southeast coast of Asia.
  • Japans islands are actually the peaks of volcanic mountains that rise from the floor of the pacific ocean. Most of the volcanoes are no longer active.
japan economy
Japan - Economy
  • Japan’s economy is highly industrialized and most of their economy is based on technology industries.
  • Japan’s population consists of many highly skilled workers; the culture of Japan values hard work, cooperation, and education.
  • Japan leads the world in automobile production.
    • Nissan, Honda, and Toyota are Japanese car companies.
japan economy1
Japan - Economy
  • Japan does not have much arable land.
  • They use technology and creativity to grow more crops; this is called intensive cultivation.
    • They grow crops on hillsides and between buildings; they can sometimes harvest three crops a year.
  • 15% of the world’s fish comes from Japan.
  • Limited Imports, overfishing, and acid rain pollution are problems for Japan.
japan history
Japan - History
  • Japanese ancestry is traced back to various clans, or groups of related families.
    • Many clans migrated from mainland Asia to the Japanese islands in the 400s.
  • Japan modeled its society on China.
  • Most Japanese practice Buddhism or Shinto, Japan’s traditional religion.
  • Shoguns, or military leaders, ruled Japan from the 1100s to the 1860s.
    • Samurai were powerful, land-owning warriors.
japan government and people
Japan – Government and People
  • After World War II, Japan became a constitutional monarchy.
  • After the results of World War II, Japan keeps its military very small.
  • The government provides healthcare and education for its people.
    • Japan has the lowest infant death rate in the world.
    • Japan’s literacy rate is 100%. (U.S. = 96.9%, World = 84.1%)
  • Japan is about the size of California.
  • Japan has 127.5 million people, a little less than half the population of the United States.
north korea1
North Korea
  • Pyongyang is the capital city of North Korea.
  • North Korea’s population is 22.7 million people.
  • North Korea is a communist nation.
  • North Korea is a poor nation, and poverty is rampant.
  • More than 30% of North Koreans are farmers; they work on giant, government owned farms.
  • Since the Korean war, the Kim dynasty has ruled as a dictatorship.
    • Kim Il Sung, Kim Jung Il, Kim Jung Un
south korea1
South Korea
  • South Korea is very mountainous.
  • Seoul is the capital of South Korea.
  • South Korea has 48 million people and about 80 percent live in urban areas.
  • Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity are South Korea’s main religions.
  • The martial art of tae kwon do originates in South Korea.
  • South Korea’s economy is prosperous.