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Crimean War, 1854-1856. A truly bizarre war Russia versus the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France British policy: Lord Palmerston Prevent Russian expansion in the Near East Use the Ottoman Empire to do it Stratford Canning, British ambassador in Constantinople. Map Europe.

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Crimean war 1854 1856
Crimean War, 1854-1856

  • A truly bizarre war

  • Russia versus the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France

  • British policy: Lord Palmerston

    • Prevent Russian expansion in the Near East

    • Use the Ottoman Empire to do it

  • Stratford Canning, British ambassador in Constantinople




French policy
French Policy (1786-1880)

  • 1690 Ottomans granted the French Catholic Church the right to have jurisdiction over some holy places

  • By the 19th century the vast majority of pilgrims were Russian Orthodox

  • Russians got more and more concessions for Orthodox clergy


Steps toward war
Steps toward war (1786-1880)

  • Louis Napoleon (elected president of France 1848, then Emperor Napoleon III in 1852)

  • Tsar Nicholas I

  • 1853 Russian demanded more concessions at the holy places

  • Canning advised the Turks to reject them

  • July 1853 Russians occupied Romania



Steps toward war1
Steps toward war (1825-1855)

  • 1853 Conference in Vienna to work out a solution

  • October 3, 1853 Turkish ultimatum to Russia

  • November 30, 1853 Battle (?) of Sinope in the Black Sea

  • Napoleon III called on the British to “sweep the Russian flag from the Black Sea”

  • March 1854 Britain and France declared war on Russia


Battle of sinope
Battle of Sinope (1825-1855)


Where do we fight
Where do we fight? (1825-1855)

  • Baltic Sea?

  • Black Sea, particularly Romania

    • Summer 1854 Allied landings at Varna

    • June 3, 1854 Vienna issued an ultimatum to Russians to evacuate Romania

    • Russians not there anymore

    • Austrian army entered Romania


Map europe1
Map Europe (1825-1855)


Map crimean war
Map Crimean War (1825-1855)


How about fighting in the crimea
How about fighting in the Crimea? (1825-1855)

  • If Sebastopol remained in Russian hands, London was doomed

  • September 14, 1854 Allies landed in the Crimea

  • September 1855 Sebastopol fell to the Allies


Peace negotiations in vienna
Peace Negotiations in Vienna (1825-1855)

  • March 1, 1855 Nicholas died and Alexander II became Tsar

  • December 1855 Austrian ultimatum to the Russians

    • Free passage of Danube mouth and new agreement for the Straits

    • Protectorate of all Christians

    • Neutral Black Sea

    • Part of Bessarabia back to Turkey



Treaty of paris march 30 1856
TREATY OF PARIS, MARCH 30, 1856 (1825-1855)

  • European (not Russian) guarantees for Christians in Ottoman Empire

  • Neutral passage of Straits, Black Sea, and Danube for all shipping

  • Danube placed under the control of an international commission (still exists)

  • Status of Moldavia and Walachia to be determined by an international conference

  • Ottoman Empire admitted to “Concert of Europe”


Crimean war 1854 1856
Map (1825-1855)