History of Europe. Specific time periods you need to know!. Rise of Europe. Farming spread from Southwest Asia to Southeastern Europe. Ancient Greece – 6000 – 300 BC. Located in Modern Greece and parts of Turkey, Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria
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History of Europe Specific time periods you need to know!
Rise of Europe Farming spread from Southwest Asia to Southeastern Europe.
Ancient Greece – 6000 – 300 BC • Located in Modern Greece and parts of Turkey, Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria • Greece – formed separate communities called city-states. • City – states – independent, but linked to others by Greek language and culture. • Laid the foundation of European government and culture. • Athens introduced western idea of Democracy (Direct Democracy) • The Olympics, started out as one day, but then spread to 5 days of events. • Art (sculpture and architecture), literature, drama, philosophy, and math are lasting legacies.
The Roman Empire(625 BC – 476 AD) • Located in most of Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East (at its height). • Rome – Conquered an empire that spanned much of Europe, southwest Asia, and Africa. • Developments in government (Representative democracy), law, and engineering influenced other cultures. • Roads and bridges • Aqueducts were also used – Their waterway system, indoor plumbing, running water, and sewer system.
Christian Europe Early Christianity was seen as a threat to the Roman way of life. Jesus was a man to them that threatened their security. Authorities did not think anything of it after his death until disciples and others (Paul) began spreading Christianity. Paul was a Roman citizen who persecuted Christians until his conversion. Next, Christian beliefs threatened Rome’s way of life because they refused to perform Caesar Worship.
How did Christianity become the official religion in Rome? At first there was massive persecution for hundreds of years. Christianity was growing even some government officials were Christians. Constantine was the 1st emperor to convert to Christianity after seeing a vision and winning a battle. He then outlawed pagan rituals and built churches. The church became more and more powerful until it could control the rulers.
The Fall of the Roman Empire There are several reasons why Rome fell. What do you think some of those are? Eastern half – lasted until 1400’s and their religion was known as Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Middle Ages476 - 1453 Period between ancient and modern times. Feudalism – a system in which lords gave land to nobles in return for loyalty replaced civil governments. Roman Catholic Church preserved writing and knowledge Most people could not read or write
Influence of other religious groups • Jews – had cities and towns, made contributions, yet many Europeans considered them outsiders. • Many settled in Eastern Europe where they formed their own culture. • Islam – Belief in one God, and the preaching of Muhammad • Culture developed in Spain
Black Plague Disease that spread across Europe from 1350 - 1450 Almost 100% mortality rate. Caused by fleas that were previously attached to rats. The bacteria in the rat blood, carried over in fleas to infect humans. 25,000,000 died. Almost wiped out all of Europe
Black Plague Obsession with Death !
Flagellanti “Leeching” Attempts to Stop the Plague
The role of the church People began to turn to the church, but some realized that they could do nothing. Many began to turn away from the church for the first time during the middle ages.
Doctors There were no real doctors. People did not know what caused diseases. Many times seeing a “doctor” would make you more sick. They might make you throw up or put leeches on you.
Expansion of Europe Crusades – series of brutal religious wars to gain back Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity from the Muslims (1095 – 1272). Many felt if they went on this crusade, they would automatically go to heaven. This was a charge from the Pope to take back the holy land from Muslims. Along the way, there were robberies, killing, and etc.
Renaissance • Renaissance – A 300 year period of discovery and learning (1300 – 1600) • Advances in European Civilization • Interest in ancient cultures of Rome and Greece • Stressed the importance of people and their place in the world • Led to scientific advances, literature, and sculptures.
Reformation Reformation (1517 – 1648) – religious movement that lessened the power of the Roman Catholic church. The Reformation of the 16th century was a movement within Western Christendom to purge the church of medieval abuses and to restore the doctrines and practices that the reformers believed conformed with the Bible and the New Testament model of the church. This led to a breach between the Roman Catholic Church and the reformers whose beliefs and practices came to be called Protestantism. http://mb-soft.com/believe/txn/reformat.htm
Reformation • Causes: • The Renaissance: Raised the level of Education, Emphasized ancient classics, Emphasized thought, paid close attention to languages and texts. • Invention of the Printing press • Sales of Indulgences by the church • Restlessness and dissatisfaction of the people (church could not offer them true spirituality because of their corruptiveness.) • A new middle class that had more knowledge and education.
Reformation With the development of learning, many monks began to translate the bible into Germanic languages. On man in doing this, Martin Luther, found many things that he felt were the foundations of Christianity, but were not supported by the church. The main thing was selling of indulgences (Payment of forgiveness of sin to the priest.) He believed that salvation was a free gift to persons through the forgiveness of sins by God's grace alone and received by them through faith in Christ.
Reformation He nailed a 95 theses to the door of the Catholic church stating all of their wrong doings. He was excommunicated from the church, but was later backed by Frederick III and other German princes.
Affects • Obviously it separated the Catholic church and the new Protestant form of Christianity. • People began to seek out God independently and read and interpret the Bible. • Development of National churches. • Ex) Henry VIII wanted to get divorced from his first wife, but the Catholic church would excommunicate him, so he started his own church (the Church of England.) • Modern thought that is prevalent today.
Reformation Martin Luther – leader of the Reformation
European Exploration (1760 – 1870) Europe conquest to find new land and goods. Wanted to beat Chinese and Muslim empires Christopher Columbus, FerdinandMagellan, De Gama
Ireland: Catholic vs. ProtestantLasting effect of the Reformation Ireland =Catholic. England finally took control over Ireland in the 16th century. Land in the north was mainly settled by English and Scottish Protestants while land in the South was mainly Catholic, and here starts our problem. The North and the South grew further apart due to economic differences. The North was industrialized while the South was mainly agricultural, but most land was run by Protestants.
Ireland: Catholic vs Protestant The fighting began because of who would control all of Ireland. Ireland wanted to be free from the UnitedKingdom, yet Northerners did not want to be in a country ruled by the majority of Catholics. Fighting broke out and eventually the United Kingdom gave Southern Ireland its freedom and Northern Ireland remained a part of Great Britain. Fighting started back up in the 60’s – 90’s by the IRA (Irish Republican Army). Mainly over religious beliefs. It did not end until around 2000.
“The Troubles” The so-called "troubles" began in 1968 when Catholics demanded equal voting rights from the Protestant controlled parliament. Demonstrations ensued. Later, the British army, originally brought in to keep the peace, became embroiled in the violence. More than 3,700 people have died since the conflict began.
Enlightenment (1650 – 1800) Movement where educated Europeans emphasized the importance of reason and began to question traditions and values. Caused revolutions
Revolutions • People wanted a say in government, so they challenged the monarchs • England, France, and others.
Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1880) • Began in England and rapidly spread to other countries • Machinery, industrial cities, and transportation were all new. • Industrial Capitalism – emerged here where business leaders used profits to expand companies • Emerged a middle class
Communism Social problems between factory workers and others led to this Philosophy that called for a society based on economic equality in which workers controlled factories and industries.
Causes of World War I • The Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assasinated by Serbian nationalist (Terrorist type group.) • Series of Events • Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum or war. • Serbia was friends with Russia, and Austria-Hungary was friends with Germany. • Serbia took on war because they were friends with Russia.