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By: John Chang Anand Pattabiraman Daniel Riveros. The East Remains Dominant. Cerulean. The East over the West 12OO – 18OO. East stayed ahead of West up until late 19 th century Economically more advanced 1750 – East had 220\% more income 1830 – East had 124\% more income

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by john chang anand pattabiraman daniel riveros
By: John Chang

Anand Pattabiraman

Daniel Riveros

The East Remains Dominant


the east over the west 12oo 18oo
The East over the West 12OO – 18OO
  • East stayed ahead of West up until late 19th century
    • Economically more advanced
        • 1750 – East had 220% more income
        • 1830 – East had 124% more income
        • 1860 – East had35% more income
        • 1870 – Europe finally caught up
strong economic proof
Strong Economic Proof
  • 1820 – China compromised 29% of the world’s GDP,
    • Can be attributed to overpopulation.
  • 1750 – When compared to 1960 US dollars, China had equal per capita income to that of leaders in Europe.
east s gdp
East’s GDP
  • China compromised 33% of the world’s manufacturing
    • Comparing China to Britain
        • 1750 – China had 1600% output than that of Britain
        • 1800 – 670%
        • 1830 -215%
        • 1860 – Britain’s output finally equal China’s
    • In 1750 West contributed 23% while East had 77%
        • Only after 1850 did the West surpass the East
west surpasses the east
West surpasses the East
  • West GNP overtakes East in 1870
    • Ottoman Turkish never fell behind the West before 19th century
      • Standards of living must also be taking into account
        • Japanese generally ate healthier than British
        • China was more advanced water wise than Europe
eurocentric argument
Eurocentric argument
  • Europe usually took bullion exports from other parts of the world
      • Andre Gunder Frank describes how the Americas and Japan produced silver, and Africa exported gold. However, Europe hardly produced anything
europe was at a lost
Europe was at a lost
  • Asians supposedly preferred bullion because of hording
      • Asians collected taxes, which forced for more commercial economy
      • Asians resorted to global arbitrage (foreign exchange to profit from unequal prices)
      • Exchanged silver for gold, not hoarding but profiting
      • Used bullion to boost circulation and production
india and oriental despotism
India and Oriental Despotism
  • Eurocentric historians believe that India was a classical case of Oriental Despotism due to several beliefs:
    • Mughal anti capitalism
    • Mughal state was “all grasping”
    • No source of Indian credit
    • Rich merchants inexistent
    • Indian commerce was insignificant prior to British imperialism
    • India was isolated from International Trade
    • India could not obtain powerful productive power.
the mughal empire crushed all capitalist activity
The Mughal Empire crushed all capitalist activity.
  • Mughal Empire was either passive or promoted capitalism demonstrated by:
    • Royal navy aiding Gujurati merchants.
    • Exchange of peace-keeping letters between Mughal rulers and neighboring empires.
the mughal state was all grasping
The Mughal State was “all grasping”
  • Central state devolved power to the local authorities.
  • Trades and prices not administered by Central State.
  • Lack of monopolies in the economy.
there could not be sources of credit in the economy of india
There could not be sources of Credit in the economy of India.
  • Had well developed financial institutions.
  • Ahmadabad merchants recorded all payments and debts on paper.
  • Sarrafs engaged in deposit banking with merchants.
rich merchants could not exist in india
Rich merchants could not exist in India.
  • Several extremely rich merchants did exist:
    • Abdul Ghafur – English East India Company
    • Virji Vora – Dutch East India Company
indian trade was insignificant prior to british imperialism
Indian trade was insignificant prior to British Imperialism.
  • India was viewed as exotic and only cared for luxury trade – spices and textiles.
  • Town merchants actually controlled many of the peddlers.
  • Many long-distance traders who controlled Indian Ocean trade.
india was isolated from international trade
India was isolated from International Trade.
  • India was oriented towards an export economy rather than import.
  • India focused on Indian Ocean and internal commerce.
  • Railways carried 2,500 metric-ton miles.
india could not have impressive levels of productive power
India could not have impressive levels of productive power.
  • Wootz Steel Industry produced Damascus swords.
  • Cotton and Textile Industry controlled by India until 18th century
tokugawa japan 1603 1868
Tokugawa Japan (1603 – 1868)
  • Often assumed as:
    • Backward and stagnant
    • Oriental despotism
    • Feudal economy
  • However, Japanese economic growth rate in Meiji Period exceeded almost all European economies.
    • Per capita income growth during Tokugawa
meiji period ended feudalism
Meiji Period ended Feudalism?
  • Merely an endpoint of policies to undermine strongholds of feudalism
    • Daimyo (aristocracy)
    • Samurai (military vassals)
  • Policies began in first half of 1600s

  • Forced to live in Edo
    • Reduced local autonomy
  • Accumulated high personal debt
    • Land taken by Meiji state to get rid of debt

  • Forced to live in castle towns
    • Growing urban numbers led to advances in agriculture
  • Markets took over subsistence cropping
  • Samurai separation promoted incentive for peasants to produce more
  • Eventually led to commercialization
rapid commercialization
Rapid Commercialization
  • Peasants’ knowledge enhanced through agricultural treatises
  • More area for irrigated


  • Rising productivity levels
  • National currency

tokugawa japan
Tokugawa Japan

economic significance
Economic Significance
  • 1630 - First credit institutions formed in Osaka
  • 1670 – Group of Ten responsible for money market
  • Similar to a central bank
    • Held final reserves of banking system
    • Deposits, advances, bill discounts, insurance
  • Advancement of industry
    • Fishing, textiles, paper-making, metalworking
japanese isolationism
Japanese Isolationism
  • Sakoku – ‘closed country’ in 1639
  • Eurocentric scholars believe Japan withdrew from international trade
    • Confirms oriental despotism and economic stagnancy
japanese isolationism1
Japanese Isolationism
  • Eurocentric scholars misunderstood sakoku
  • Policy used to regulate foreign trade and get rid of foreign Catholic ideas
  • Japan continued trade with China, Korea, Dutch, Siam, and later, South-East Asia
eurocentric vs hobson
Eurocentric vs. Hobson
  • Commodore Perry opened up a closed Japan
    • Japan was already global
  • Meiji Japan only succeeded because it imitated the West
    • Industrialization prompted to counter China’s dominance
  • Tokugawa Japan was regressive oriental despotism
    • Groundwork for Meiji industrialization laid during Tokugawa Period