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The cultural remains The cultural remains Coat of arms Statue of the first municipial coat of arms in Europe - Košice , Slovakia

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coat of arms
Coat of arms
  • Statue of the first municipial coat of arms in Europe - Košice, Slovakia
  • Košice, today in Slovakia (then part of the Kingdom of Hungary) was the first town in Europe to be granted its own coat of arms. It was granted by KingLouis I the Great at the Castle of Diósgyőr in Diósgyőr, present Miskolc-Diósgyőr, Hungary in 1369.
  • The original coat of arms featured only the red and silver stripes and three fleur-de-lis in a blue background ([1], first picture). The coat of arms used today features symbols of historical counties (Abov, Gemer, Spiš, Turňa, Uh, Zemplín) and hasn't changed since 1502.
  • Košice is unique in that it was the first city in Europe to gain a royal warrant for a coat of arms. The city is further unique in that by the year 1502, in the period of active heraldry, it had obtained altogether four armorial warrants from four monarchs.
  • The statue of the first municipal coat of arms in Europe (its author is famous SlovaksculptorArpád Račko) was inaugurated in December 2002 at Hlavná ulica (Main Street).
the dominican church
The Dominican Church
  • The Dominican Church (Slovak: Dominikánsky kostol ) at Dominikánske námestie (English: Dominican Square) is the oldest church in Košice, Slovakia and also the oldest preserved object in the town at all.
  • In the first written document from 1303 it is mentioned as an already existing church. It was built in about 1290. The oldest part of the church is the Romanesquenave with narrow windows. During the Baroque reconstruction they had been broadened into the present shape. The sanctuary is build in the Gothic style as well as the tower on the northern joint of the nave with the sanctuary. The 68 metres high conical tower is the highest in Košice.
  • After the big fire in 1556, the damaged church served as a store-house up to the beginning of the 18th century, when it was rebuilt in the Baroque style. The interior is richly decorated by wall paintings. The ceiling was painted in the years 1750-1758 by Štefan Voroš. The main altar illustrates the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. The altar of the Rosary Virgin Mary is also to be mentioned as it is believed that the Rosary is the idea of Saint Dominic, the founder of the Dominican Order. Paintings and statues in the church represent those who are the most famous of numerous the Dominican saints: Dominic de Guzman, Catherine of Siena, Thomas Aquinas or the Dominican nun Margaret, daughter of the King Béla IV.
the east ern slovak gallery
The East(ern) Slovak Gallery
  • The East(ern) Slovak Gallery (Slovak: Východoslovenská galéria) in Košice was founded in 1951 as the first regional gallery in Slovakia.
  • The Baroque-Classicalpalace-type building was erected in 1779 for the needs of the Abovcomitatuscouncil. The building continued to serve as a comitatus hall until 1928. For several weeks starting in April 1945, it was used by the government of Czechoslovakia, temporarily resident in Košice at that time. On April 5, 1945 the first post-war political programme was announced in the ceremonial session chamber, known as the Košice Government Programme. In the years 1973–1975 the building was reconstructed and converted into a museum.
the franciscan church
The Franciscan Church
  • The Franciscan Church (Slovak: Františkánsky kostol ) or the Seminary Church (Slovak: Seminárny kostol ) at Hlavná ulica (English: Main Street) is the second oldest church in Košice, Slovakia.
  • It was built for Franciscans by the Perényi family from Perín after the big fire in 1333. Its preserved Gothic elements document a beautiful plastic Gothic decoration. The reliefs above the entrance, stone seats close to the altar and |vaults above the sanctuary and former chancel (dedicated to Saint Nicholas) are original. After the fire in 1556, the church served as a military store-house and the sanctuary as a bishopcathedral of the bishop of Eger who settled here during the occupation of Eger by Turks (1597-1671).
  • The interior is baroquized, the main altar has a valuable baldachin structure. The statue of Saint Charles Borromeo, a patron of the seminary, is on its copula. Almost all the altars, the pulpit and other moveables are from years 1760-1770.
  • The founder of the first University of Košice, the bishop of Eger Benedikt Kisdy, was buried in the crypt under the main alter. All the crypts were plundered by soldiers after the World War II.
the holy spirit church
The Holy Spirit Church
  • The Holy Spirit Church (Slovak: Kostol svätého Ducha) or Hospital Church of the Holy Spirit (Slovak: Špitálsky kostol svätého Ducha) is the eldest building of the city part of Košice-Juh (Košice, Slovakia). It is located at beginning of Južná trieda (South Avenue), close to the historic centre of medieval Košice.
  • It is a baroque church erected between 1730 and 1733. The capacity of the interior is moderate - it is only for 200 people. The vault painting is highly interesting. It shows a view of Košice of the first third of the 18th century, when the town was surrounded by high town walls. The whole church emanates the atmosphere of bygone days.
  • The church is situated in the axis of former hospital buildings erected in the 13th century. The word hospital used to be a designation of a charity organization for the very old, the poor, orphans, the homeless, the sick. The hospital was situated outside the town walls and the church was a part of it from the beginning. Unfortunately, it was pulled down in the beginning of the 18th century.
  • At present, the House for pensioners is placed in the building.
the orthodox synagogue in ko ice
The Orthodox synagogue in Košice
  • The Orthodox synagogue in Košice (Slovak: Ortodoxná synagóga v Košiciach) was built in the years 1926-1927 at Puškinova Street in the historic centre of Košice, Slovakia.
  • The OrthodoxJews built a representative synagogue with 800 seats with a school and the Talmud Torah school haeded by rabbis. The designer of the synagogue was Ľudovít Oelschläger, a Christianarchitect, and it was built by Hugó Kaboš.
  • The Holocaust memorial plate
  • The bronzeHolocaust memorial plate was installed on the front of the synagogue in 1992. It informs that more than 12,000 Jews of Košice were taken to concentration camps in 1944. Unfortunately, it does not mention that more than 2,000 Jews from Košice's surroundings were concentrated here and then also sent to the concentration camps. Only 400 of all transported Jews survived.
  • The region of Košice was a part of Hungary during World War II (after the First Vienna Award). The transports of Jews to the Nazi camps were commanded by Ladislav Csatári. He disappeared after the war and was captured 50 years later in Canada
the st elisabeth cathedral
The St. Elisabeth Cathedral
  • The St. Elisabeth Cathedral (Slovak: Dóm sv. Alžbety, Hungarian: Szent Erzsébet-székesegyház, German: Dom der Heiligen Elisbeth) is a Gothiccathedral in Košice. It is Slovakia's biggest church.
  • This medieval monument was built in the High Gothic style between 1378 and 1508 in several stages on the site of a parish church that burned down in 1370.
  • The cathedral was often damaged by calamites that is why the building underwent numerous restorations. The most extensive restoration works took place in the years 1877-1896. During the last phase of the restoration a crypt was built under the northern nave of the cathedral. In 1906 the remains of Francis II Rákóczi and his friends from Turkey were buried there.
  • The present appearance of the St. Elizabeth Cathedral preserves a five - nave planning with intersection of the main and traversal naves and with polygonal presbytery. A metallic tower is placed at the point of intersection of the naves. On its southern side there is an entrace chamber with the royal oratory above it and chaples on its sides. The southern steeple, the so-called Matejova, dates from 1461 and the northern steeple with Rococo helm dating from 1775 complete the western front of the cathedral. The western portal is decorated with embossed scenes with the following biblical motifs: Jesus in the Gethsemane garden, Piety and Towel of St. Verona. The richest and artistically the most valuable is the northern portal with the embossed painting. The Last Trial executed in two rows one above the other. Also to be seen here are embossed paintings from the life of St. Elisabeth, Virgin Mary with women, St. John with soldiers. Above them there is one more paiting the Crucifixion. In the middle of the northern portal there is a sculpture of St. Elizabeth. The southern portal has two entrances and forms an integral part of the whole composition according to the original design of the southern entrance chamber.
  • The interior of the St. Elizabeth Cathedral is very imposing and valuable. In this respect particular mention should be made of the main altar of St. Elizabeth, a hanged sculpure of Immaculata, the Late Gothic altar Visit of Virgin Mary, a stone epitaph of the Reiner family, a wooden sculpture of Virgin Mary, fragments of the wall painting The Last Trial, the side altar of St. Anton Paduansky, a wall painting The Resurrection, the bronze font, the altar paiting of St. Anna Metercia, Gothic Calvary, the lantern of the king Matthew, wooden polychrome sculptures, the side altar Worship of Three Kings, Neo-Gothic stone pulpit. Valuable masterpieces and relics are preserved in the treasury.
the state theatre
The State Theatre
  • The State Theatre, Košice (Slovak: Štátne divadlo Košice) is situated in the centre of Košice, Slovakia.
  • The representative building of the State Theatre was built in a Neo-baroque style according to projects of Adolf Lang during the years 1879-1899.
  • The interior of theatre is richly decorated with plaster ornaments, the stage is lyre-shaped. The ceiling of the building is decorated with scenes from William Shakespeare's tragedies Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
  • The State Theatre of Košice comprises of 3 independent ensembles: drama, opera and ballet. It performs on two stages: in the Historical Building and on the Little Stage.It has 2 scenes - in Historical building and Little scene. In Košice City (centre of East Slovakia) theatre has more that six hundred years tradition.
  • In Košice, the metropolis of Eastern Slovakia, the theatre has more than six hundred years of tradition. The theatre was performed in diverse places: in the open air, on the provisional stages of wooden shanties, in schools, as well as in various buildings. The current building of the State Theatre of Košice whose name changed many times during its history up to now, is a historical building. It belongs to the distinguished cultural monuments of the City; moreover, it is an important dominant of the historical core of Košice City. The building dating from 1899, the work of the architect Adolf Lang (history labels him to be one of the most gifted architects of 19th century in Europe), ranks as one of the most beautiful theatre buildings in Europe.
  • The State Theatre of Košice was established in 1945 under the name East-Slovakian National Theatre (later on, its name changed many times, similarly to other Slovak theatres). When founding the new theatre, its foundation director Janko Borodáč followed the structure of the Slovak National Theatre of Bratislava. He therefore banked on integrity of the artistic work of three ensembles: drama, opera/operetta, and ballet. At the beginning, he failed to create the latter. For the long two years the ballet was just a “service body”
  • The drama ensemble of Košice theatre entered into the context of the Slovak stagecraft with the premiere of the play Marína Havranová (on 15 September 1945). At almost the same time, also the team of opera ensemble introduced with the premiere of the operetta Polish Blood (on 6 October 1945). The first ballet evening in Košice was in 1947: on the programme there were the ballets Les Sylphides, The Little Mermaid, and The Polovec Dances.
  • The artistic development of Košice State Theatre drama has so far been mostly influenced by the stage director Janko Borodáč. In Košice, he stage-managed 24 plays, a half of them were titles from Slovak and Russian classics. The Borodáč´s systematic formation of the ensemble in the spirit of realistic methods of stage-managing left an everlasting track on the histrionic work of its members. And the stage-managers, who were operating in Košice for a long time after Borodač´s departure, were also his direct pupils or grew under his pedagogical and artistic influence. At present, after a period of a kind of consolidation after previous restructurings that has reflected on the troupe, dramaturgical choice and the quality of productions, the drama is being revived. The art chief has even two stages for that purpose: in addition to the main stage in the historical building of the theatre also a small stage in the former studio Smer (Direction).
  • Nowadays, the largest body of the Theatre is the opera ensemble. For the period of its 60- years´ existence the body performed a number of opuses from the worldwide, Slovak and Czech opera literatures. Of the singers who were performing in the State Theatre of Košice, and rose to become soloists of international significance we can mention here the names such as Sergey Kopčák, Štefan Margita, and Ida Kirilová. The opera ensemble has the works like Carmen or The Barber of Seville in its repertoire. Moreover, on the regular basis, the body also introduces the operetta works and the works for children (The Puss in Boots, The Merry Widow).
  • The Ballet of Košice State Theatre is one of two Slovak professional bodies that perform classical ballet literature. At present, the ensemble has titles for all the age categories of audience in its repertoire, from fairytales to modern dance works (The Little Prince, Bolero, Carmen, The Badly Watched Girl).
protestant church
Protestant Church
  • Church or Protestant Church The Evangelical (Slovak: Evanjelický kostol) at Mlynská ulica (Mill Street) in Košice is one of the most beautiful Neoclassicalevangelicalchurch buildings in all Slovakia.
  • It was built in 1816 based on the design of Georg Kitzling, a court architect from Vienna, for the German and Slovak Protestants of the town of Košice. During the construction of the church, Hungarian Protestants joined German and Slovak and bought the bells. The cross from old wooden church made in 1735 was transferred into the new church.
  • The Evangelical church in Košice is an oval central church building. Typical Lutheranchancels are situated in side spaces. The visitors are fascinated especially by the copula with a panel ceiling. The main altar has a column architecture. The church is joined by the rectory and the choir house.
the immaculata
The Immaculata
  • The Immaculata (or The Plague Pillar, Slovak: Morový stĺp) is a Baroqueplague column in Košice, Slovakia. It was erected at the place of medievalgallows at Hlavná ulica (Main Street) in 1723 and it commemorates the end of the plague of 1710-1711.
  • It is a 14 metre high column on the stone basement with sculptures of Saint Joseph, Saint Sebastian and Saint Ladislaus. There is a sculpture of Virgin Mary on the top of the column. The sculptures of Saint Gabriel, Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint Margaret, Saint Michael the Archangel and Saint Barbara are on the pillars of the fence.
  • The statue was damaged during the World War II. It was restored by academic sculptor Vojtech Löffler in the years 1949-1951 and 1971-1972. The last reconstruction took place in 1996-1998.
the premonstratensian church
The Premonstratensian church
  • The Premonstratensian church (Slovak: Premonštrátny kostol ), initially Jesuistical church (Slovak: Jezuitský kostol), is the most valuable Baroque object of Košice, Slovakia, especially notable for its interior.
  • It the Middle Ages, the Royal House (a seat of the Royal Chamber), stood in the place of the present church. The CaptainAndrew Dóczi established there a dwelling and a chapel for Jesuits in the Protestant town at the beginning of the Recatholization. They were tortured here to death in the night from 6th to 7th of September, 1619 by soldiers of George I Rákóczi, the father of the Prince of Transylvania George II Rákóczi. They are the well-known Saint Martyrs of Košice (Marek Križin, Melicher Grodecký and Štefan Pongrác).
  • The bestial murder of the Jesuits shocked the town. All the Rákóczi ladies in fear of the God’s anger tried to achieve a pardon for the family. The wife of George II Rákóczi purchased the real estate for a church construction for the Jesuites inspired by the famous Church of the Gesù in Rome. The church was finished in 1681. In 1811 it was given to the Premonstrates. Today, the church is consecrated to the Holy Trinity
the st michael chapel
The St. Michael Chapel
  • The St. Michael Chapel (Slovak: Kaplnka sv. Michala) is a GothicChapel in Košice, Slovakia.
  • It was probably erected in the first half of the 14th century. It was built as a cemetery chapel inside the town walls in the place of the present-day park at Hlavná ulica (English: Main Street). The lower part of the chapel was initially an ossarium, the upper one served for offices for the deceased.
  • The patron of the dead, Saint Michael the Archangel, trampling the Devil, is shown on the facade. The archangels Raphael and Gabriel are on his sides. In the interior, there is a nice stone tabernacle, the ornamental sculpture Ecce Homo and rests of wall paintings from the Middle Ages. The first municipal coat of arms in Europe (dated back to 1369) is situated above the door leading to the vestry.
  • The chapel served as a Slovakchurch whereas the St. Elisabeth Cathedral was a German and Hungarian church.
  • During the rebuilding in the years 1902–1904, they pulled down the northern aisle (it was erected in 1508) and bricked 17 old gravestones (coming from the 14th till 17th century) into the exterior walls of the chapel to save them from destruction.
  • Bad condition of the building was the reason of the complex reconstruction in the years 1998–2006. The reconstructed chapel was consecrated on January 22, 2006 by Košice's archbishopMonsignorAlojz Tkáč.
the st urban tower
The (St.) Urban Tower
  • The (St.) Urban Tower (Slovak: Urbanova veža) in Košice, Slovakia is originally a Gothic prismatic campanile with a pyramidal roof. It was erected in the 14th century.
  • A church bell installed in the tower has been dedicated to Saint Urban, the patron of vine-dressers. The bell was cast in a mould by the bell-founder Franciscus Illenfeld of Olomouc in 1557. Its weight is 7 tones.
  • In 1775 the pyramidal roof was constructed with annion in the Baroque style with an iron double cross. An archade passage was erected around the tower in 1912. There are 36 old gravestones (coming from the 14th and 15th centuries, one of these comes from the Roman Empire and dates back to the 4th century) bricked into the exterior walls of the St. Urban Tower.
  • In 1966 the tower was damaged by fire and the St. Urban Bell was destroyed as well. The reconstructed tower was reopened in 1971. The renovated bell was located in the front of the tower and a copy of the bell (made by Moravian family Dytrych in 1996) was installed in the campanile.
  • The East Slovak Museum set up an impressive exhibition of foundrywork in the tower after the reconstruction in 1977. It was removed in 1995. Today, there is a unique wax museum exhibition in the tower.
the greek catholic church
The Greek-Catholic Church
  • The Greek-Catholic Church of Virgin Mary's Birth (Slovak: Gréckokatolícky kostol narodenia Panny Márie) is located at Moyzesova Street in the historic centre of Košice, Slovakia.
  • Greek Catholics started to settle Košice in the 17th century. As late as in 1852 their bishop established a chapel in Košice. Till then, the divine services were served in the Franciscan Church, rarely at Premonstrates or in the St. Michael Chapel.
  • In 1880, the community were able to buy grounds neighboring with the chapel and to buid the church in the Neo-Romanesque style[citation needed] in the years 1882-1886.
  • In the Communist era of former Czechoslovakia, the church was given to the Orthodox Church which was the only officially supported church. After 1990, it was returned back to the Greek Catholics and the church was restored and repaired.
the calvinist church
The Calvinist Church
  • The Calvinist Church (Slovak: Kalvínsky kostol ) at Hrnčiarska ulica (English: Pottery Street) in Košice, Slovakia was initially an army store-house.
  • In the years 1805 – 1811 it was rebuilt to a Calvinist church with a new 48 metres high slender spire. The church interior is very simple, the only presentable piece is the pulpit. A metal rooster made in 1589 was given on the spire. Initially it was installed on the northern tower ot the St. Elisabeth Cathedral.