Marketing channels
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Marketing Channels. Supply Chain. A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer . Supply Chains.

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Supply chain
Supply Chain

  • A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

Supply chains
Supply Chains

  • Upstream partners: set of firms supply raw materials, components, parts, information, finances, and expertise needed to create a product or service.

  • Downstream partners: the marketing channels such as wholesalers and retailers that look toward the customer.

Marketing channels



Supply chain management
Supply Chain Management

  • Managing upstream & downstream value-added flows of materials, final goods, and related information among suppliers, the company, resellers, and final consumers.

Retailer wholesaler
Retailer & Wholesaler

  • Retailing includes all activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal, nonbusiness use.

  • Wholesalinginclude all activities involved in selling goods or services to those who are buying for purpose of resale or for business use.

Value delivery network
Value Delivery Network

  • The network made up of the company, suppliers, distributors, and ultimately customers who “partner” with each other to improve the performance of the entire system in delivering customer value.

Marketing distribution channel
Marketing (Distribution) Channel

  • A set of interdependent organizations that help make a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.

How adding a distributor reduces the number of channel transaction
How Adding a Distributor Reduces the Number of Channel Transaction














Contacts without a distributor

Contacts with a distributor

Key functions of marketing channel members
Key Functions of Marketing Channel Members Transaction

  • Gather & distribute Information

  • Develop & communicate promotion for buyers

  • Contact with buyers

  • Matching the offer to buyer’s need

  • Price negotiation

  • Physical distribution by transporting & storing goods

  • Financing

  • Risk taking by stocking goods which might be out of date in the near future

Channel level
Channel Level Transaction

  • A layer of intermediaries that performs some work in bringing the product and its ownership closer to the final buyer.

Direct vs indirect marketing channel
Direct Transaction VS. Indirect Marketing Channel

Direct marketing channel

Indirect marketing channel

Channel containing one or more intermediary levels.

  • A marketing channel that has no intermediary levels.

Customer marketing channels
Customer Transaction Marketing Channels










Channel 1

Channel 2

Channel 3

Business marketing channels
Business TransactionMarketing Channels




Manufacturer’s representative or sales branch

Business Distributor

Business Distributor

Business Consumer

Business Consumer



Channel 1

Channel 2

Channel 3

Channel behavior
Channel Behavior Transaction

  • The successful individual channel members depends on overall channel success, all channel firms should work together smoothly.

  • Channel conflict: disagreement among marketing channel members on goals and roles—who should do what and for what rewards.

    • Horizontal:conflicts among firms in the same level of channel

    • Vertical: conflicts between different levels of the same channel

Vertical marketing systems vms
Vertical Marketing Systems (VMS) Transaction

Conventional distribution channels

Vertical marketing systems

A distribution channel structure in which producers, wholesalers, and retailers act as a unified system. One channel member owns the others, has contracts with them, or has so much power that they all cooperate.

  • A channel consisting of one or more independent producers, wholesalers, and retailers, each a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits, perhaps even at the expense of profits for the system as a whole.

Comparison of conventional with vertical
Comparison of TransactionConventional with Vertical











I corporate vms
I. Corporate VMS Transaction

  • A vertical marketing system that combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership-channel leadership is established through common ownership.

  • The secret of Zara’s success is its control over almost aspect of the supply chain, from the design and production to its own worldwide distribution network.

Ii contractual vms
II. Contractual VMS Transaction

  • A vertical marketing system in which independent firms at different levels of production and distribution join together through contracts to obtain more economies or sales impact than they could achieve alone such as the franchise organization.

Iii administered vms
III. Administered VMS Transaction

  • A vertical marketing system that coordinates successive stages of production and distribution, not through common ownership or contractual ties, but through the size and power of one of the parties.

Horizontal marketing system
Horizontal Marketing System Transaction

  • A channel arrangement in which two or more companies at one level join together to follow a new marketing opportunity.

  • By working together, companies can combine their financial, production, or marketing resources to accomplish more than any one company could alone.

*McDonald’s Express in Wal-Marts

*McDonald’s and Sinopec (China’s largest gasoline retailer)

Multichannel distribution system hybrid marketing channels
Multichannel Distribution System Transaction(Hybrid marketing channels)

  • A distribution system in which a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments.

Multichannel distribution system
Multichannel Distribution System Transaction



Catalogs, telephone, Internet

Sales force



Consumer segment 1

Consumer segment 2

Business segment 1

Business segment 2

Marketing channel design
Marketing Channel Design Transaction

  • Designing effective marketing channels by

    • analyzing consumer needs,

    • setting channel objectives,

    • identifying major channel alternatives,

    • evaluating them.

Major channel alternatives
Major channel alternatives Transaction

  • Company must identify:

    • Types of intermediaries

    • Numbersof intermediaries

    • Responsibilities of channel members

Number of marketing intermediaries
Number of Marketing Intermediaries Transaction

  • Intensive distribution: stocking the product in as many outlets as possible.

  • Exclusive distribution: giving a limited number of dealers the exclusive right to distribute the company’s products in their territories.

  • Selective distribution: the use of more than one, but fewer than all, of the intermediaries who are willing to carry the company’s products.

Distribution center
Distribution Center Transaction

  • A large, highly automated warehouse designed to receive goods from various plants and suppliers, take orders, fill them efficiently, and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.