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Hitler’s Rise to Power. Death of President : Hitler is appointed Chancellor, Pres dies, he combines the two roles and becomes “fuhrer” Treaty: reparations WAY too harsh, want back colonies, etc. and Hitler promises to do something about this

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hitler s rise to power
Hitler’s Rise to Power
  • Death of President: Hitler is appointed Chancellor, Pres dies, he combines the two roles and becomes “fuhrer”
  • Treaty: reparations WAY too harsh, want back colonies, etc. and Hitler promises to do something about this
  • Speaking Skills: uses propaganda well, defends himself on the radio, publishes a book
  • Economic: country is in a depression, US takes back loans
  • Weimar Failures: can’t deal with depression (think Hoover…), causes inflation by printing more money
the league of nations
The League of Nations
  • Separate the pieces of paper into two piles: successes and failures
  • Looking just at successes which goals of the League were best met?
  • Looking just at the failures which goals of the League were least met?
  • 1. Improve General Welfare
  • 2. Promote Cooperation
  • 3. Reduce Arms
  • 4. Prevent International Aggression
the league of nations1
The League of Nations
  • Major Goals
  • 1. Improve General Welfare
  • 2. Promote Cooperation
  • 3. Reduce Arms
  • 4. Prevent International Aggression
successes
Successes
  • Majority of “successes” have to do with promoting cooperation (court rulings) or improving the general welfare (shut down drug companies, sent home WWI prisoners)
  • Why is promoting cooperation easier than enforcing cooperation?
  • Did have some success with minor conflicts (though you wouldn’t know it from the examples)
  • Mussolini: “the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out”
failures
Failures
  • Major Failure pertain to disarmament or preventing aggression
  • 1st Disarmament is hard to ENFORCE!
  • 1919: Italy, Port of Fiume
  • 1920: Lithuania and Poland
  • 1931: Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
  • All of these cases show that the League will stand by and do nothing! (Hitler is paying attention!)
why does it fail to stop aggression
Why does it fail to stop aggression?
  • 1. Policy of Appeasement (1938)
  • appeasement: settling problems with compromise
  • If you get someone (Hitler) that doesn’t want to “play the game”, you will lose
  • Why did the League choose Appeasement?
  • The memory of WWI: they were unwilling to take action that could lead to war
  • 2. Major Countries Not Involved
  • US NEVER JOINED!!
  • Why is this a problem?
  • Less money, less military support, less clout
  • All of this means: NO POWER TO STOP AGGRESSION!
important questions
Important Questions
  • What were the major failures of the League of Nations?
  • failure to disarm, failure to stop aggression
  • Why did the League of Nations choose appeasement?
  • memory of WWI
  • Why couldn’t the League enforce its policies?
  • Major countries (US) didn’t join; not strong enough
slide8
Quiz Tuesday Over:
  • Treaty
  • Hilter’s Rise
  • League
  • Homework
isolationism to intervention
Isolationism to Intervention
  • War begins in 1939 with Hitler’s Invasion of Poland
  • US does not get involved until 1941
  • Definitions:
  • Isolationism: staying out of world affairs
  • Intervention: getting involved in world affairs
  • Why did US enter World War I?
  • Zimmerman, Sub Warfare, Debts, Good for Business, etc!
  • What is the overwhelming reason US shifts from a policy of isolationism to interventionism?
  • PEARL HARBOR
consider us enters wwii december 11 1941
Consider…US Enters WWII December 11, 1941
  • Reasons we “may” have entered war:
  • Hitler’s invasions (1936-1939)
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1932)
  • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941)
  • Why is the third reason, clearly the most logical?
a date which will live in infamy december 7 1941
“A date which will live in infamy”: December 7, 1941
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Thoughts from clips?
  • Can you think of other events in US history that bring up the same feelings as Pearl Harbor?
impact of pearl harbor
Impact of Pearl Harbor

OUTRAGE!

Millions rush to enlist! Pulling us out of the GD

America mobilizes for Total War!

Eventual dropping of Atomic Bomb?

mobilize for total war outline
Mobilize for Total War: Outline!
  • Homefront and Warfront
    • Enlistment (Women and Minorities, too)
    • Supporting War Effort at Home
    • Military Successes
    • Japanese Internment Camps
homefront enlistment and women
Homefront: Enlistment and Women
  • Battle Cry “Remember Pearl Harbor!”
  • 5 million enlist after PH
  • 10 million overall through draft!
  • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
  • Under this program women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots
minority contributions
Minority Contributions
  • Many questioned whether it was “their fight”
  • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military
  • Redtails
  • 300,000 Mexican-Americans
  • 33,000 Japanese Americans
  • 13,000 Chinese Americans
  • 25,000 Native Americans
    • “We would not need the Selective Service if all volunteered like Indians”
supporting the war at home us experiences total war
Supporting the War at Home: US experiences “Total War”
  • Total War: every aspect of society is geared towards war effort
  • Car factories  tanks
  • Mechanical pencils  Bomb parts
  • Workforce: worried about having ENOUGH workers!!
workforce at home
Workforce at Home
  • 18 million new workers
  • 6 million women (cost 60% less than men)
  • You can see why people argue the WAR got the US out of the Great Depression!!
rosie the riveter
Rosie the Riveter
  • Encourage women to work in factories
  • “Feminist” image
  • Continues to inspire women to work outside the home after war!
hollywood mobilizes
Hollywood Mobilizes
  • Movies inspire patriotism
    • Why We Fight: Frank Capra movie
  • Movies inspire hatred
    • Hitler: Beast of Berlin
  • Escapist Films: movies to forget about war
mobilization of scientists
Mobilization of Scientists
  • 1941: FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)
  • Focus : radar and sonar to locate submarines
  • Also: penicillin and pesticides like DDT
    • protect against lice
  • Eventually: ATOMIC BOMB!
manhattan project
Manhattan Project
  • The most important achievement of the OSRD was the secret development of the atomic bomb
  • FDR thinks Germans were attempting to develop such a weapon (they knew how to split an atom)
  • The code used to describe American efforts to build the bomb was the “Manhattan Project”
government mobilizes
Government Mobilizes
  • FDR creates the Office of Price Administration (OPA)
  • The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation
  • Like World War I War Productions Board
  • Ensure ample resources, FDR created the WPB
  • Decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries
government sponsors collection drives
Government Sponsors Collection Drives
  • WPB organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling
  • Rationing
  • Gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee
propaganda
Propaganda
  • Purpose: encourage involvement in war enlisting, saving food, supporting troops, distrust enemey
  • Tools: emotion, fear, humor, patriotism/pride
concluding the war
Concluding the War
  • V-E Day
  • Yalta Conference

1) They agreed to divide Germany into 4 occupied zones after the war

2) Stalin agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe

3) Stalin agreed to help the U.S. in the war against Japan and to join the United Nations

nuremburg trials
Nuremburg Trials
  • The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes
  • The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany
  • “I was only following orders” was not an acceptable defense as 12 of the 24 were sentenced to death and the others to life in prison
  • 90% Never Tried
  • 1948: ISRAEL created!!!
ending the war in japan
Ending the War in Japan
  • Estimate 1.5 million deaths: invading Japan
  • Only way to end war: Atomic Bomb
  • Truman warned Japan
  • On August 6 (Hiroshima) and August 9 (Nagasaki) a B-29 bomber dropped Atomic Bombs on Japan
  • Japan Surrenders days after Nagasaki
  • Post War: US occupies Japan for 7 years (MacArthur plays a huge role)
  • He helped with Constitution (Japan can only have a DEFENSIVE military!)
slide38

August 6,1945

HIROSHIMA

internment of japanese americans
INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS
  • When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. – mostly on the West Coast
  • After Pearl Harbor, many people were suspicious of possible spy activity by Japanese Americans
  • In 1942, FDR ordered Japanese Americans into 10 relocation centers

Japanese Americans felt the sting of discrimination during WWII

u s pays reparations to japanese
U.S. PAYS REPARATIONS TO JAPANESE
  • In the late 1980s, President Reagan signed into law a bill that provided $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to a relocation camp
  • The checks were sent out in 1990 along with a note from President Bush saying, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past . . . we now recognize that serious wrongs were done to Japanese Americans during WWII.”

Today the U.S. is home to more than 1,000,000 Japanese-Americans

slide44

Nearly 59 years after the end of World War II, the National World War II Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., on Saturday, May 29, 2004 to honor the 408,680 Americans who died in the conflict

major take aways
Major Take-Aways!
  • Pearl Harbor get US involved in WW2
  • US mobilized COMPLETELY: Total War
  • Women work in factories and Rosie the Riveter image emerges
  • Minorities volunteer to fight which will encourage equality movements of 1960s
  • Atomic Bomb changes nature of war
  • Holocaust results in 12 million deaths
  • State of Israel is Created 1948
  • Japanese Internment Camps bring up questions of civil rights during war time
  • World War II sets up conflict for the next 50 years: Cold War
  • WWII sets up US as world power