air quality from space n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Air Quality from Space PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Air Quality from Space

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Air Quality from Space - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 85 Views
  • Uploaded on

Air Quality from Space. Photo from NASA Skylab in 1973 of Los Angeles smog. Satellites provide a “birds eye” view. Bryan N. Duncan Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Air Quality. Smog = a noxious mixture of particulates & gases.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Air Quality from Space' - eara


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
air quality from space

Air Quality from Space

Photo from NASA Skylab in 1973 of Los Angeles smog.

Satellites provide a “birds eye” view.

Bryan N. Duncan

Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

air quality
Air Quality

Smog = a noxious mixture of particulates & gases

In the US, 120 million people currently live in areas that do not meet air quality standards

slide3

Where there are lights, there is pollution!

Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)

on the Suomi NPP satellite

slide4

Question: Why does NASA monitor pollution? Isn’t that the job of the EPA?

Answer: Spatial coverage.

Instruments on NASA satellites can measure pollution over the whole U.S. and even the whole globe.

Surface measurements are sparse and don’t give us the whole air pollution picture.

slide5

Haze over the Mid-Atlantic

Pollution has a global impact via long-range transport!

True Color Image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite

slide7

Ozone

●The ozone standard is currently 75 ppbv as averaged over 8-hours.

● A new rule may lower the standard to 60 ppbv = European standard.

Source of graphic:

Wall Street Journal, July 21, 2011

slide8

A Quick Tutorial….

“Good” Ozone

Blocks most UV rays

“Bad” Ozone

Damages Lungs

slide9

Formaldehyde – a proxy for VOCs – a precursor to ozone

Isoprene is a VOC emitted from trees & emissions increase with temperature.

HCHO is a product of isoprene oxidation,

so variation in the concentration of HCHO can serve as a proxy for variation of isoprene.

Isoprene plays an important role in the formation of unhealthy levels of ozone – more important than anthropogenic VOCs, so must decrease NOx to decrease ozone!

Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite

nitrogen d ioxide is another precursor to ozone
Nitrogen dioxide is another precursor to ozone

Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite

NO2 is an EPA criteria pollutant as well.

slide11

Regulations of NOx Emissions are Working!

NO2 decreases by 20-50%

2010

2005

Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite

slide12

SO2 Reductions over the Eastern US as Seen by OMI

When combusted, coal with sulfur impurities leads to the formation of SO2 – a precursor to acid rain and PM2.5.

2008-2010

2005-2007

Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite

and for perspective
And for perspective …

OMI SO2 China 2005 mean

OMI SO2 US Ohio Valley

0.0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

SO2 Column (DU)

OMI measurements show that SO2 was very high in China (2005) and much lower over the Ohio valley in the US. The SO2 in China comes from power plants without scrubbers burning high sulfur coal. The 1971 Clean Air Act mandated scrubbers on US power plants built after 1977.

slide14

Sulfur Dioxide

2005-2007: increasing power plant emissions

2005

2006

2007

Chinese SO2 emission controls were strengthened by the 11th Five-Year-Plan that requires flue-gas desulfurization technology (FGD) on all new plants and some old ones. There is also better inspection and enforcement.

2008

2008: Beijing Olympics, stringent emission control measures were enforced

2009

2009: Global economic crisis, reduce industrial activity and strict emission controls continue

slide15

Refineries

Landfall

Aug. 29th

New Orleans

Katrina

LA Offshore Oil Port reopened Nov. 5th

Rita

Landfall

Sep. 24th

The Impact of the 2005 Gulf Hurricanes on NO2

Destroyed Oil Platforms (, )

Difference in OMI NO2

(Pre Katrina - Post Rita *)

x1015molec/cm2

Reductions in Oil & Gas Production

* Pre Katrina = August 1 - 26

Post Rita = September 27 - October 17

Katrina

Rita

Wilma

Production [%]

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused a significant reduction in NO2 emissions from oil and gas production facilities as well as power plants.

Date

slide16

Wildfires & Agricultural Fires

Cold Front

Agricultural Fires

But how does satellite AOD (unitless) relate to “nose-level” PM2.5 (ug/m3)?

AOD = Aerosol Optical Depth

the degree to which aerosols prevent the transmission of light by absorption or scattering of light through the entire vertical column of the atmosphere from the ground to the satellite’s sensor.

pm 2 5 estimation popular methods
PM2.5 Estimation: Popular Methods

Difficulty Level

Y=mX + c

PM2.5

AOT