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Air Quality

Air Quality

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Air Quality

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  1. Air Quality HAZE

  2. Contents: • Introduction • Causes of haze • Effects of haze • Trans-boundary • Actions taken by the NEA and the ASEAN • The Citizens’ roles in air pollution reduction • Bibliography

  3. What is Haze? Haze is an accumulation of dust, smoke and other pollutant particles which reduces visibility and causes health threats.

  4. Causes of haze • Burning of forests to make way for agriculture • Drought period • The chopping down of trees for other uses • Other factors

  5. Why slash and burn? It is the cheapest way for: • Large scale agricultural Activities. • poor farmers to save costs. • However it Produces lots of haze…

  6. The drought period: • Between July to early October , peat swamps and grasslands dry up. • Makes plants and peat vulnerable to catching fire easily. (One of the stages to the formation of coal.) • More than 2,000,000 hectares of these areas combust annually. • This dry plants and peat usually burns uncontrollably and causes lots of haze.

  7. The 1997 Haze in Singapore During the month of September, the pollution standard index (PSI) went over one hundred, past the unhealthy level. The haze was caused by winds, carrying the haze from Sumatra, on to Singapore and Malaysia. This is also known as trans-boundary. Marina Bay Newton Jurong East

  8. The recent haze in Malaysia This was how Kuala Lumpur looked like during the recent haze which struck, similar to the 1997 haze which hit Singapore. As the fires occurred further north of Sumatra, The trade winds carried the haze over Kuala Lumpur. Fortunately, Singapore was spared. Kuala Lumpur City Centre View from KL Twin Towers Poor Visibility at the entrance to the City Centre

  9. Trans-boundary: • The trans-boundary issue affects not only one, but neighbouring countries such as Singapore and Malaysia. • The haze travels with the wind and hits Singapore and Malaysia. Haze Map of Sumatra and neighbouring countries Kuala Lumpur City centre

  10. How trans-boundary affects the region… Hotspots and Haze over Sumatra, Malaysia and Singapore

  11. A clearer picture on the wind movements

  12. Other factors contributing to haze: • Emission from vehicles • Smoke from factories and power stations • Smoke from cigarettes and burning of things

  13. Transports Public transports, e.g, buses and the MRT Reduce the usage of Diesel for vehicles Walk or cycle, if distance is short. it’s healthy too!

  14. Other factors contributing to haze: • Emission from vehicles • Smoke from factories and power stations • Smoke from cigarettes and burning of things

  15. In homes: • Do not leave any appliances un-attended. • Educate the younger generations to save electricity. • Use granular pesticides, air fresheners, air humidifiers • Use CFC-free air conditioners or use the fan • plant potted plants in homes

  16. Other factors contributing to haze: • Emission from vehicles • Smoke from factories and power stations • Smoke from cigarettes and burning of things

  17. Citizens’ role: In the public (or rather everywhere): • Do not burn paper or other items unnecessarily • Do not litter- especially throwing plastic objects as plastic produces toxin when melted. • DO NOT SMOKE (Advise friends and relatives not to smoke)

  18. Effects on our Health: Short-term effects: • Causes irritation to eyes, nose, throat and upper respiratory system • Headache • Nausea • Causes allergic reactions

  19. Long-term effects: • Chronic respiratory disease. • Lung cancer. • Heart disease. • Brain, nerves, liver or even kidney damage. • Affects lungs of growing children. • Worsen or complicate medical conditions in the elderly.

  20. Actions taken by NEA: • Minimising pollution at source by enforcing air emission limits and fuel quality on industries and motor vehicles. • Stringent legislation and enforcement. • Proper land use – planning and moving of industries away from population. • Promoting cleaner energy and energy efficiency • Eco-tourism • High Tech farming

  21. Actions taken by ASEAN The ASEAN, also known as the Association of South East Asian Nations, are already discussing on how to tackle the haze problem in Indonesia and its surrounding regions… This is an article taken from the ASEAN website dated 27Sep2005 by Mynardo Macariag on haze control “ASEAN Vows Swift Action on Choking Haze” "We stand ready to assist each other by mobilising our resources to mitigate fires in the region during critical periods," “stepping up previous measures such as joint emergency response and guidelines for zero burning and controlled burning practices."All mentioned my ministers of ASEAN

  22. Pictorial sources taken from…