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WWII chapter 25

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  1. WWII chapter 25 1941-1945

  2. Describe the response of Americans to the rise of nationalism in Japan, Italy, and Germany during the 1930’s. How did President Roosevelt ready the US for war? • According to the Gallup Polls issued between 1938 and 1940 Americans felt we should stay out of European affairs. Even if England and France were attacked by Germany…Many felt it was a mistake to get involved in WWI and still harbored resentment. The Coming of the War

  3. Meanwhile, Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy in 1922—”We have buried the putrid corpse of liberty…” • Why would Mussolini and Hitler become allies?

  4. War spread across Asia first because Japan needed natural resources they could not furnish on their own. • Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. Japan launched a full scale campaign against China in 1937 The Shadows of War

  5. Economic hardship allowed Adolf Hitler to rise to power in Germany where he combined militaristic rhetoric with racist doctrine of Nordic (Aryan) supremacy… • 1933 Hitler assumed power as chancellor where he made himself a dictator . • He renounced the Treaty of Versailles and began rebuilding Germany’s military and “arms”. Germany and the Treaty of Versailles

  6. 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia • 1936 Germany occupies the Rhineland (a region demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles) • The Spanish Civil War with the support of Mussolini and Hitler Franco maintained power • Hitler now ready to claim land for Germans to grow Lebensraum Imperial Visions – Hitler / Mussolini

  7. Hitler seizes Austria and then turned his attention to Czechoslovakia and took the Sudetenland (portion of Czechoslovakia that previously belonged to Germany– however Britain and France both pledged to assist if invaded) ) 1938 • Countries “appease” Hitler and they agree that no further expansion will take place… • 1939 Hitler takes control of the rest of Czechoslovakia Lebensraum

  8. Kristallnacht began November 9, 1938 • After 1935 when the Nuremberg Laws denied civil liberties to Jews the campaign became vicious • Hitler’s storm troopers smashed store windows, rounded up Jews and beat them mercilessly murdering an untold number… • Jews were given only menial jobs and their property was taken from them. • Pressured by Hitler, Hungary and Italy enacted similar laws. Next on the list – The Jews

  9. October 1937 FDR calls for international support for sanctions but is refused; he does however gain 1 billion dollars from Congress to enlarge the army. • 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland Great Britain and France declared war against Germany. They did not exchange fire; however the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany and invaded Poland from the east. • The Soviets then head north and took Finland • Germany moves against Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg— • Great Britain retreats and joins forces with Italy to take France in 1940. • Next Hitler turned his attention to Great Britain where Nazi bombers pounded the population and industrial centers while u-boats cut off supplies Roosevelt Readies for War…

  10. Roosevelt declares all aid short of war to our allies: China, Britain, and France with the Neutrality Act of 1939. • FDR transferred surplus of planes and equipment to the allies. • Started the first peace time draft with the Selective Service Act of 1940… • Public confidence in FDR starts to drop because of “Roosevelt Recession” 1937 – He promises not to send our boys to Europe! • Churchill and FDR meet to discuss plans for AFTER the war – common goals for all countries to live in freedom… Neutrality Act of 1939

  11. FDR anticipates danger to American interests in Asia moves the fleet from California to Hawaii…May 1940 • September 27 Japan joins forces with Italy and Germany • Japan in the process of capturing Southeast Asia both French and English colonies. • Roosevelt freezes assets and cuts off Japan’s oil supplies in response • Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in retaliation December 7, 1941 • USA declares war against Japan. Italy and Germany declare war against the USA. Pearl Harbor

  12. The War Powers Act is passed giving FDR power to reorganize the federal government, censor news agencies, abridge civil liberties, seize property owned by foreigners, and award government contracts without bidding. • Propaganda important (OWI-Office of War Information) Here We Come…Mobilization

  13. War brought a huge expansion of the federal • Under government pressure industry shifted to defense production • Federal budget grew to ten times the previous levels. • New Workers enter the workforce (bracero workers from Mexico as short term workers recruited); women entered the work force in record numbers • Strikes were determined illegal during the war and most industries complied (there were wild cat strikes due to the unfair conditions reported pre-war—coal miners led by John C. Lewis had such a walkout) • The story of Willow Run (Ypsilanti, Michigan) Government and the Economy

  14. The Issei ,Japanese in America born in Japan, had been barred from US citizenship; however during the war Japanese born in the US represented 2/3rds of the Japanese population (Nisei) was also singled out for legal sanctions and internment. • “You’re a sap, Mister Jap, to Make a Yankee Cranky” popular song of the day! • Executive Order 9066—112,000 Japanese were interned in 10 different camps in remote areas of Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Wyoming, and California, 1942. • Korematsu v. US ruled this was legal under threat of national security. 1944 • 1988 $20,000 and a national apology came from Congress to the 60,000 surviving victims. Japanese Internment

  15. Eager to improve their condition African Americans organized and demanded fair housing and equal employment opportunities. • To avert a national demonstration FDR approved Executive Order 8802 which banned discrimination in defense and government jobs. • 1942 20,000 white workers at the Packard Motor Company (Detroit) to protest the promotion of 3 African American workers. • A short distance away US Rubber Company more than half the white workers walked out when African American women began to operate the machinery. • Detroit was the site of a bloody race riot in February 1942 when black families tried to rent federally funded apartments in two different neighborhoods. 6000 federal troops were called in! • Looky here, America what you done done—Let things drift until the riots come. Yet you say we’re fighting for democracy. Then why don’t democracy include me? I ask you this question cause I want to know—How long I got to fight BOTH HITLSE AND JIM CROW—Langston Hughes 1943 Double V – Victory at Home and Abroad

  16. 1943 sailors went looking for Mexican Americans dressed in zoot suits (the clothing signaled defiance and a lack of patriotism). The sailors assaulted people at random. The zootsuiters represented 10% of the Mexican population. • Riots continued for 5 days. • However more than 300,000 Mexican Americans were serving in the military which was a greater percentage of their population than any other draft age group! And, they served in the most dangerous of jobs. • Click on photo Zoot-Suit Riots

  17. Germans held their prisoners in Olfags or Stalags for enlisted men – they were for the most part bored…The Red Cross used Monopoly games to sneak in escape routes! • The Japanese felt only contempt – the camps were brutal—The Death March through the jungle of the Bataan Peninsula… Prisoners of War

  18. Despite initial loses the Allies-- • gained footholds in North Africa • Took control of much of Italy • Launched a successful invasion of Normandy – June 6, 1944 at 6 o’clock in the morning • –D Day / Operation Overlord • Although facing enormous obstacles the Allies enjoyed important advantages: vast natural resources, a skilled workforce with sufficient reserves to build up arms, tremendous anti-fascists sentiment, the ability of the Soviet Union to endure great losses. The World at War

  19. The battles in Europe and the Pacific were very different—in the Pacific the area was vast and the Japanese were close to home. • At first the colonies captives favored the captures – Japanese—but when they were treated cruelly they favored the Allies. • The US started to regain its naval superiority and halted the Japanese. • The American win at Midway also cleared a path to victory although that will be difficult to achieve. Battles on Two Fronts

  20. Oprah Winfrey with Eli Weisel part 1 continue to watch the series on You Tube follow from this entry… Auschwitz – “Work Makes You Free “ Principals meet at Yalta to discuss how the war will end and what the exit plan will be. Present are Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt…FDR wanted Russia to declare war on Japan after Germany surrendered which he agreed to do some months after. Leaders were warned America had a weapon that would cause total destruction. The Last Stages of War

  21. VE Day is May 8,1945 with the unconditional surrender of Germany… • VJ Day August 14, 1945 after the second bombing of Japan… • October 24, 1945 the United Nations is formed with 5 main countries: US, France, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union • November 24, 1945 the Nuremberg War Trials begin The End of the War

  22. New Tactics and weapons of WWII made warfare more deadly and costly to both soldiers and civilians alike-- massive air-raids, and the atomic bomb • The atomic bomb itself then changed the world and how wars in the future might decimate the planet… The End