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Minerals & Vitamins. Chris Ellason. Minerals. Macro minerals Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K and S Trace or micro minerals Co, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn. Calcium. Milk fever poorly mineralized bones osteoporosis weak egg shells. Calcium. 99% is stored in bones in a 2:1 ratio with P

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Minerals vitamins

Minerals & Vitamins

Chris Ellason


  • Macro minerals

    • Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K and S

  • Trace or micro minerals

    • Co, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn


  • Milk fever

  • poorly mineralized bones

  • osteoporosis

  • weak egg shells


  • 99% is stored in bones in a 2:1 ratio with P

  • Controls nerve and muscle excitability

  • Aids in blood coagulation

  • Skeletal and heart muscular contraction and relaxation


  • Ca absorption is accomplished by active transport

  • CaBP (Calcium Binding Protein) controls absorption and in most species is Vitamin D dependent

  • Typically as dietary Ca increases, percent absorbed decreases

  • Vitamin D deficiency can result in depressed Ca uptake due to CaBP


  • Poorly mineralized bones

    • osteoporosis

  • impaired fertility

  • Rickets

    • Stiffness of joints and muscles, dramatic weight loss, and bone degeneration


  • Approximately 80% of total body P is contained in skeletal system

  • Serum P occurs in both organic and inorganic forms

  • Organic form is primarily lipid

  • Inorganic is in a variety of forms, ionized, bound to proteins, etc.

Phytic acid
Phytic Acid

  • P is bound as an ester of inositol

  • Renders it basically unavailable to nonruminants

  • Phytate is high in many plant seeds

  • Some inorganic sources may contain more or less phytate

  • Can be available for ruminants


  • Can occur in extreme cases

  • Results in excessive bone resorption

  • High levels can depress absorption of Ca

    • Ca:P ratio should be 1:1 to 2:1 in male ruminants

    • Excess P may cause urinary calculi


  • Grass Tetany

  • Can replace Ca, and P in bones

  • Staggering


  • 3rd most prevalent mineral in the body

  • ½ total MG is contained in bone

  • Mg in soft tissue is concentrated mainly in liver and skeletal muscle

Magnesium functions
Magnesium functions

  • Required for normal bone formation

  • Enzyme activation

  • ATP enzymes and P transfer


  • Mg toxicity is manifested through

    • Depressed intakes

    • Cardiorespiratory depression

    • Even heart stoppage

  • Chronic high levels can result in P depletion in bones


  • Weakness

  • emaciation, loss of weight

  • Dehydration

  • distended abdomen


  • Major cation of intracellular fluid

    • Involved in osmotic pressure and acid-base balance

  • Muscle activity

Minerals vitamins

  • NaCl

  • Weight loss

  • dehydration

  • reduced performance

  • delayed puberty


  • K works with Na to maintain osmotic pressure

  • K primary function is to maintain acid/base balance in the body

  • Also involved in processes such as protein synthesis and glucose absorption


  • Na as the extracellular component of an energy dependent Na “pump”

  • Maintenance of osmotic pressure

  • Acid/base balance by its separation from K

  • Cl is involved in osmotic pressure and maintenance of acid/base balance


  • Growth rate reduction

    • S containing amino acids

  • reduced wool and feather growth

Minerals vitamins

  • Anemia

  • Common in baby pigs


  • Faded hair coat

  • joint swelling

  • no loss of winter coat

  • anemia

Minerals vitamins

  • Hoof softness

  • wool slipping

  • thickened skin

  • parakeratosis in swine

    • Pigs 6 to 16 wks old

    • Deficiency of ZN or inadequate absorption of Zn due to excess Ca

    • Causes lesions on the skin


  • Skeletal abnormalities

  • slipped tendons in poultry

  • impaired reproduction

  • testicular degeneration

  • defective ovulation

  • Excess Ca & P decreases absorption


  • Anemia

  • lowered growth rates

  • reduced appetite

  • Needed by rumen bacteria for growth & Vitamin B12 synthesis


  • Low metabolism

  • Goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland)

  • hairless pigs at birth

  • wool-less lambs at birth


  • White muscle disease cattle - muscular dystrophy

    • Muscle weakness or loss of muscle tissue

  • stiff lamb disease

    • Vitamin E & Selenium deficiency

    • Become stiff, cannot walk or nurse properly and die or starvation

  • liver necrosis

    • Destroying of the liver cells

Significant mineral interactions
Significant Mineral Interactions

  • Cu, Mo and Zn

    • Excess Mo and Zn reduce Cu metabolism

  • Ca and Zn

    • High Ca and phytate P can inhibit Zn absorption by tying up

  • Ca, P and Mn

    • High Ca, P can inhibit Mn absorption

Significant mineral interactions1
Significant Mineral Interactions

  • Mg and K

    • Excess K reduces Mg absorption

    • Mg deficiency reduces K retention and can result in K deficiency as well

  • Cu and Fe

    • Cu required for proper Fe metabolism

Significant mineral interactions2
Significant Mineral Interactions

  • Mg and Ca, P

    • Excess Mg can inhibit Ca, P absorption will replace these in bones

  • P and Mg, Ca

    • Excesses in Mg and Ca can affect absorption

    • Ca:P ratio at 1.5 to 2:1

Significant mineral interactions3
Significant Mineral Interactions

  • Zn and Se

    • Used together improve immune response in combination with Vitamin E

  • Cu, Mo and Fe

    • In ruminants these interact and can affect absorption of all three and S


  • Organic compounds in foods distinct from proteins, CHO or fats

  • Cannot be synthesized by animals and must be supplied by the diet

  • If not supplied each results in a specific deficiency


  • Fat Soluble

    • Vitamin A

    • Vitamin D2 and D3

    • Vitamin E

    • Vitamin K, natural and synthetic


  • Water Soluble Vitamins

    • Thiamine

    • Riboflavin

    • Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)

    • Pyridoxine

    • Pantothenic Acid


  • Water Soluble cont.

    • Biotin

    • Choline

    • Folic Acid

    • Cobalamin

    • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

    • Inositol

    • PABA


  • Fat Soluble only contain C, H and O

  • Water Soluble also contain N, S, or Co

Fat soluble vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins

  • Are generally responsible for the regulation of metabolism of structural units

  • May occur in plant tissues as provitamins

  • Absorbed in intestinal tract only in the presence of fat

  • All can be stored when fat is deposited and rate depends on intake

Fat soluble vitamins1
Fat Soluble Vitamins

  • Only K can be synthesized by rumen microbes

  • Excreted only in feces with fat

Water soluble vitamins
Water Soluble Vitamins

  • No provitamins

  • Responsible primarily in energy transfer

  • Absorbed more easily and readily from SI

  • Water soluble vitamins are not stored to a great extent

  • Excretion occurs both in feces and urine

  • Rumen microbes can synthesize all

Vitamin deficiencies
Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Vitamin A - night blindness, mucosal degenteration

  • Vitamin D - osteoporosis

  • Vitamin E - muscular dystrophy, liver necrosis

  • Vitamin K - blood clotting disorders

Vitamin deficiencies1
Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Thiamin (B1) - edema, enlarged heart

  • Riboflavin (B2) - cataracts, lesions around lips and mouth

  • Niacin - Ulcers, diarrhea, dermatitis

  • Pantothenic acid - dermatitis, graying of hair, fetal death, goose stepping in pigs

Vitamin deficiencies2
Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Pyridoxine (B6) - Reduced immune function, increased fat deposition

  • Cobalamin (B12) - anemia, kidney damage

  • Folic Acid - anemia cannot tell difference between this and B12

  • Biotin - soft hooves, loss of hair, birth defects

Vitamin deficiencies3
Vitamin Deficiencies

  • Vitamin C - bone defects, bleeding gums, scurvy in humans

  • Choline - fatty liver, bleeding kidneys, slipped tendon in poultry

Vitamin functions in rations
Vitamin Functions in Rations

  • Cobalamin given as intake stimulant

  • A - mucosal lining degeneration can occur if not provided in large quantities

  • E - immune system

  • Biotin - hoof hardness

  • Pantothenic Acid - reproduction

  • Niacin - growth rates and milk production?