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Biochemistry-Nutrition

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  1. Biochemistry-Nutrition Nutrition Vitamin C Lab Skim Milk Protein Saturated and Unsaturated Fats Carbohydrates / Fiber Minerals

  2. Saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids LDL HDL Kcal/g Fats in nutrition Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Vitamins Amino Acids, Dipeptide,Polypeptide Protein Minerals Fats

  3. Experimental Results • Part A – Qualitative Test for Lipids _________ is added to a food sample. The mixture is then ____________. _________ is added to filtrate. A white __________forms if the sample contained an appreciable amount of fat.

  4. Question 1a Experimental Results • Part A – Qualitative Test for Lipids Ethanolis added to a food sample. The mixture is then Filtered. Water is added to filtrate. A white precipitate forms if the sample contained an appreciable amount of fat.

  5. Question 1a Experimental Results • Part A – Qualitative Test for Lipids Ethanolis added to a food sample. The mixture is then Filtered. Water is added to filtrate. A white precipitate forms if the sample contained an appreciable amount of fat.

  6. Question 1a Experimental Results • Part A – Qualitative Test for Lipids Ethanolis added to a food sample. The mixture is then Filtered. Water is added to filtrate. A white precipitate forms if the sample contained an appreciable amount of fat.

  7. Question 1a Experimental Results • Part A – Qualitative Test for Lipids Ethanolis added to a food sample. The mixture is then Filtered. Water is added to filtrate. A white precipitate forms if the sample contained an appreciable amount of fat.

  8. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately ____% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately ___ % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids ___ % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids ___ % should come from saturated fatty acids

  9. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately 30% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately 40 % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from saturated fatty acids

  10. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately 30% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately 40 % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from saturated fatty acids

  11. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately 30% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately 40 % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from saturated fatty acids

  12. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately 30% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately 40 % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from saturated fatty acids

  13. 3. Fat Ratios • Your diet should contain approximately 30% of your caloric intake from fats. • Of those fat calories approximately 40 % should come from monounsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from polyunsaturated fatty acids 30 % should come from saturated fatty acids

  14. 4. Saturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. This can be clearly seen in the marbling effect of beef or the firm consistency of butter. Saturated fats raise levels of blood cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and triglycerides, (fatty materials) in the bloodstream, which can dramatically increase an individual’s risk for heart disease.

  15. 4. Saturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. This can be clearly seen in the marbling effect of beef or the firm consistency of butter. Saturated fats raise levels of blood cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and triglycerides, (fatty materials) in the bloodstream, which can dramatically increase an individual’s risk for heart disease.

  16. 4. Saturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. This can be clearly seen in the marbling effect of beef or the firm consistency of butter. Saturated fats raise levels of blood cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and triglycerides, (fatty materials) in the bloodstream, which can dramatically increase an individual’s risk for heart disease.

  17. 5. Trans fatty acids • Trans fatty acids Trans unsaturated fatty acids, or “trans fats,” are created when hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fats through hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a manufacturing process invented in early 20th Century. In trans fats the double bonds are in the trans configuration instead of the cis configuration.

  18. 5. Trans fatty acids • Trans fatty acids Trans unsaturated fatty acids, or “trans fats,” are created when hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fats through hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a manufacturing process invented in early 20th Century. In trans fats the double bonds are in the trans configuration instead of the cis configuration.

  19. 5. Trans fatty acids • Trans fatty acids Trans unsaturated fatty acids, or “trans fats,” are created when hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fats through hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a manufacturing process invented in early 20th Century. In trans fats the double bonds are in the trans configuration instead of the cis configuration.

  20. 5. Trans fatty acids • C C • C= C • H H Cis • C H • C= C • H C trans

  21. 5. Trans fatty acids • C C • C= C • H H Cis • C H • C= C • H C trans

  22. 5. Trans fatty acids • C C • C= C • H H Cis • C H • C= C • H C trans

  23. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • The major contributor of trans fat in the American diet is processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. These oils are used in everything from potato chips and other snack foods, margarine and shortening, to deep fried and fast foods. In addition, small amounts of trans fats can be found naturally occurring in meats and dairy products.

  24. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • The major contributor of trans fat in the American diet is processed foods containing partially hydrogenatedvegetable oils. These oils are used in everything from potato chips and other snack foods, margarine and shortening, to deep fried and fast foods. In addition, small amounts of trans fats can be found naturally occurring in meats and dairy products.

  25. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • The major contributor of trans fat in the American diet is processed foods containing partially hydrogenatedvegetable oils. These oils are used in everything from potato chips and other snack foods, margarine and shortening, to deep fried and fast foods. In addition, small amounts of trans fats can be found naturallyoccurring in meats and dairy products.

  26. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Trans fats or “partially hydrogenated” oils (those oils that have gone through the hydrogenation process) acquire many of the properties of saturatedfats and are less prone to spoilage. Solids at room temperature, they are also a very cost-effective substitute for butter since they are derived from a plant source rather than an animal source.

  27. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Trans fats or “partially hydrogenated” oils (those oils that have gone through the hydrogenation process) acquire many of the properties of saturatedfats and are less prone to spoilage. Solids at room temperature, they are also a very cost-effective substitute for butter since they are derived from a plant source rather than an animal source.

  28. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Trans fats or “partially hydrogenated” oils (those oils that have gone through the hydrogenation process) acquire many of the properties of saturatedfats and are less prone to spoilage. Solids at room temperature, they are also a very cost-effective substitute for butter since they are derived from a plant source rather than an animal source.

  29. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Trans fats or “partially hydrogenated” oils (those oils that have gone through the hydrogenation process) acquire many of the properties of saturatedfats and are less prone to spoilage. Solids at room temperature, they are also a very cost-effective substitute for butter since they are derived from a plant source rather than an animal source.

  30. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Trans fats or “partially hydrogenated” oils (those oils that have gone through the hydrogenation process) acquire many of the properties of saturatedfats and are less prone to spoilage. Solids at room temperature, they are also a very cost-effective substitute for butter since they are derived from a plant source rather than an animal source.

  31. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • In the body, trans fat has been shown to be a greater hazardous risk factor for heart disease than saturated fat. Studies have shown that dietary trans fats can increase levels of “bad” LDLcholesterol and decrease levels of “good” HDL cholesterol. Studies have also shown that dietary trans fats can increase triglyceride levels and lipoprotein-a levels, both risk factors for coraonary heart disease.

  32. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • In the body, trans fat has been shown to be a greater hazardous risk factor for heart disease than saturated fat. Studies have shown that dietary trans fats can increase levels of “bad”LDLcholesterol and decrease levels of “good” HDL cholesterol. Studies have also shown that dietary trans fats can increase triglyceride levels and lipoprotein-a levels, both risk factors for coraonary heart disease.

  33. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • In the body, trans fat has been shown to be a greater hazardous risk factor for heart disease than saturated fat. Studies have shown that dietary trans fats can increase levels of “bad”LDLcholesterol and decrease levels of “good”HDL cholesterol. Studies have also shown that dietary trans fats can increase triglyceride levels and lipoprotein-a levels, both risk factors for coraonary heart disease.

  34. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • In the body, trans fat has been shown to be a greater hazardous risk factor for heart disease than saturated fat. Studies have shown that dietary trans fats can increase levels of “bad”LDLcholesterol and decrease levels of “good”HDL cholesterol. Studies have also shown that dietary trans fats can increase triglyceride levels and lipoprotein-a levels, both risk factors for coraonary heart disease.

  35. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Most fatty acids can be produced in adequate amounts by the body, with the exception of the two unsaturated essentialfatty acids (EFAs), which must be consumed through the diet. Unfortunately, these EFAs are removed during hydrogenation because they tend to spoil relatively quickly. Therefore, even though trans fatty acids are classified as “polyunsaturated,” the intake of these oils tends to provide all the negative health consequences commonly associated with saturated fat without any of the benefits of the EFAs found in naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats.

  36. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Most fatty acids can be produced in adequate amounts by the body, with the exception of the two unsaturated essentialfatty acids (EFAs), which must be consumed through the diet. Unfortunately, these EFAs are removed during hydrogenation because they tend to spoil relatively quickly. Therefore, even though trans fatty acids are classified as “polyunsaturated,” the intake of these oils tends to provide all the negative health consequences commonly associated with saturated fat without any of the benefits of the EFAs found in naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats.

  37. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Most fatty acids can be produced in adequate amounts by the body, with the exception of the two unsaturated essentialfatty acids (EFAs), which must be consumed through the diet. Unfortunately, these EFAs are removed during hydrogenation because they tend to spoil relatively quickly. Therefore, even though trans fatty acids are classified as “polyunsaturated,” the intake of these oils tends to provide all the negative health consequences commonly associated with saturated fat without any of the benefits of the EFAs found in naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats.

  38. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Most fatty acids can be produced in adequate amounts by the body, with the exception of the two unsaturated essentialfatty acids (EFAs), which must be consumed through the diet. Unfortunately, these EFAs are removed during hydrogenation because they tend to spoil relatively quickly. Therefore, even though trans fatty acids are classified as “polyunsaturated,” the intake of these oils tends to provide all the negative health consequences commonly associated with saturated fat without any of the benefits of the EFAs found in naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats.

  39. 5. Trans Fatty Acids • Most fatty acids can be produced in adequate amounts by the body, with the exception of the two unsaturated essentialfatty acids (EFAs), which must be consumed through the diet. Unfortunately, these EFAs are removed during hydrogenation because they tend to spoil relatively quickly. Therefore, even though trans fatty acids are classified as “polyunsaturated,” the intake of these oils tends to provide all the negative health consequences commonly associated with saturated fat without any of the benefits of the EFAs found in naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats.

  40. 6. LDL’s HDL’s • Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the body cells including blood vessels. The cholesterol than can form plaque that clog the arteries leading to heart disease. • High Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the liver where it is removed from the body in the form of bile. • HDL’s are good cholesterol carriers while LDL’s are bad cholesterol carriers.

  41. 6. LDL’s HDL’s • Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the body cells including blood vessels. The cholesterol than can form plaque that clog the arteries leading to heart disease. • High Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the liver where it is removed from the body in the form of bile. • HDL’s are good cholesterol carriers while LDL’s are bad cholesterol carriers.

  42. 6. LDL’s HDL’s • Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the body cells including blood vessels. The cholesterol than can form plaque that clog the arteries leading to heart disease. • High Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the liver where it is removed from the body in the form of bile. • HDL’s are good cholesterol carriers while LDL’s are bad cholesterol carriers.

  43. 6. LDL’s HDL’s • Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the body cells including blood vessels. The cholesterol than can form plaque that clog the arteries leading to heart disease. • High Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the liver where it is removed from the body in the form of bile. • HDL’s are good cholesterol carriers while LDL’s are bad cholesterol carriers.

  44. 6. LDL’s HDL’s • Low Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the body cells including blood vessels. The cholesterol than can form plaque that clog the arteries leading to heart disease. • High Density Lipoproteins transport cholesterol to the liver where it is removed from the body in the form of bile. • HDL’s are good cholesterol carriers while LDL’s are bad cholesterol carriers.

  45. 7. Energy Content in Fats • Fats = 9 kcal / g or 9 Cal/g • Protein = 4 kcal / g • Carbohydrates = 4 kcal / g

  46. 7. Energy Content in Fats • Fats = 9 kcal / g or 9 Cal/g • Protein = 4 kcal / g • Carbohydrates = 4 kcal / g

  47. 7. Energy Content in Fats • Fats = 9 kcal / g or 9 Cal/g • Protein = 4 kcal / g • Carbohydrates = 4 kcal / g

  48. 7. Energy Content in Fats • Fats = 9 kcal / g or 9 Cal/g • Protein = 4 kcal / g • Carbohydrates = 4 kcal / g

  49. 8. Fats in Nutrition • Role of fat in the body Despite the widespread media attention given to the negative consequences of fat intake, it is an important and essential component of a heart-healthy diet. Fats perform a vital and valuable role in the body. For example, fats: • Are a part of all cell _________ • Regulate the use and production of cholesterol and transport it through the body. • Absorb and carry the fat -soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

  50. 8. Fats in Nutrition • Role of fat in the body Despite the widespread media attention given to the negative consequences of fat intake, it is an important and essential component of a heart-healthy diet. Fats perform a vital and valuable role in the body. For example, fats: • Are a part of all cell membranes • Regulate the use and production of cholesterol and transport it through the body. • Absorb and carry the fat -soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.