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CHAPTER 11 MOTIVATING OTHERS
TWO MEANINGS OF MOTIVATIION • Motivation is (a) an internal state that leads to effort toward objectives, and (b) an activity performed by one person to get another person to accomplish work. • Motivation might be directed toward subordinates, coworkers, supervisors, or customers.
TEN USEFUL ATTITUDES AND SKILLS FOR MOTIVATION • Ask the person what he or she hopes to achieve in the situation. • Figure out if the person has the ability to do what you need done. • Explain exactly what you want person to do who you are trying to motivate. • Give lots of feedback to the worker. • Specify what needs to be done.
Attitudes and Skills for Motivation, continued • Treat the other person fairly. • Avoid instilling fear in the person. • Generously praise person who gets your work accomplished. • Before giving a reward, find out what would appeal to the person. • Recognize that person must have the right skill in order to be motivated.
“WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME?” (WIIFM) • “What’s in it for me?” is the most fundamental principle of motivation. • People want to know how they will benefit from performing a task. • Performing a social good might lead to reward of feeling good about oneself. • Must know what needs person is attempting to satisfy.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEEDS AND BEHAVIOR Needs lead to behavior, or what people actually do. Two examples: • Person with need for affiliation might be extraverted, and therefore motivated to work with others. • Person with need for achievement might be conscientious and therefore motivated to accomplish useful work.
SEVEN KEY NEEDS Ninety-nine % of employees are motivated by one or more of the following needs: • Achievement (satisfaction of completing projects) • Power (satisfaction from influencing and controlling others) • Affiliation (satisfaction from interacting with others, forming friendships) • Autonomy (freedom and independence)
Seven Key Needs, continued • Esteem (want to feel good about self, judge worth based on recognition and praise) • Safety and security (seek job security, steady income, ample medical and health insurance) • Equity (seek fair treatment, and become discouraged if coworkers are treated better) Recognizing these needs enables you to apply the WIIFM principle.
BACKGROUND CONCEPTS FOR USING POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT • Behavior modification changes behavior by manipulating rewards and punishment. • Law ofeffect—behavior that leads to positive consequences is repeated; negative consequences slow the behavior. • Positive reinforcement increases probability that behavior will be repeated by giving reward for desired response.
Concepts for Positive Reinforcement, continued • Reward must be contingent upon doing something right. (Simply giving compliment or gift is not positive reinforcement.) • Negative reinforcement is rewarding people by taking away an uncomfortable consequence of their behavior. It is the opposite of punishment. • Behavior modification, including positive reinforcement, requires systematic approach.
RULES FOR POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT • State clearly what behavior will lead to a reward. • Choose an appropriate reward. (An appropriate reward is effective.) • Supply ample feedback. • Schedule rewards intermittently (surprise with a reward). • Make the reward follow the observed behavior closely in time.
Rules for Positive Reinforcement, concluded • Make the rewards fit the behavior. (Big deeds merit big rewards, and reverse.) • Make the rewards visible. (Others should notice the reward, and the recipient should feel the difference.) • Change the reward periodically. (The same reward can grow stale.) • Reward the group or team also.
WHAT WORKERS WANT FROM THEIR JOB AND EMPLOYER • Competitive salary • 100 percent of healthcare coverage paid by employers • Company-matched 401(k) investments • Bonus programs • Flexible work schedules • Compressed workweek • Good relationship with boss
What Workers Want, continued • Being treated with respect • Making a contribution to the company, and perhaps society Although only factors 1, 2, and 3 are in rank order, factors 4 though 9 are also considered important for job satisfaction. Table prepared from study of 1,051 workers.
WHY RECOGNITION IS EFFECTIVE MOTIVATOR • Recognition programs to reward and motivate employees are standard practice. • Recognition program is strong motivator because of normal recognition craving. • Most workers feel recognition deficient. • Recognition not substitute for good pay. • Recognition tied in with other motivators, such as pay increases and promotions.
APPROACHES TO GIVING RECOGNITION • Identify a meritorious behavior, then give oral, written, or material reward. • Use rules for positive reinforcement, and time praise for when it will do the most good. (Staff meeting is good occasion.) • Recognition award should help employee feel appreciated for contribution made. • Economic value of award less important than focus on employee’s contribution.
Approaches to Giving Recognition, concluded • Recognition statements more effective when expressed in specific, rather than general terms. • High-power approach is for manager to hold personal celebrations of outstanding accomplishment. • Celebration could include meal in restaurant or in workplace to honor outstanding accomplishment.
FINE POINTS ABOUT GIVING RECOGNITION • Recognition, including praise, is low cost, or no cost, yet powerful motivator. • Not everyone responds well to same form of recognition. • Technical people prefer laid-back, factual statement of praise. • Women may be more receptive to praise. • Company culture of recognition is helpful. • Recognition can become an entitlement.
CAPSULE OVERVIEW OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Person will be motivated when: • Effort-to-performance expectancy is high. Person believes task is doable. • Performance-to-outcome expectancy is high. Person believes that performance will lead to certain outcomes. • Valence is high. Outcome is valuable to person.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF EXPECTANCY THEORY • Effort-to-performance expectancy is the individual’s probability that effort will lead to performing the task correctly. • Performance-to-outcome expectancy is the individual’s probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes or rewards. • Valence is the value, worth, or attractiveness of an outcome.
HOW MOODS INFLUENCE EXPECTANCY THEORY • Emotions influence impact of expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences. • Positive mood increases perceived connection between • effort and performance • performance and desired outcomes • valences attached to those outcomes
DIAGNOSING MOTIVATION WITH EXPECTANCY THEORY • Does person have the right skills and self-efficacy? • How assured is person that performance will lead to the promised reward? • How badly does the person want the reward? • Any zeroes in response to first three questions? If so, motivation will be zero because Motivation = (EP) x (P) x (sum of all valences for outcomes).
GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING EXPECTANCY THEORY • Train and encourage people. • Make explicit link between rewards and performance. • Make sure rewards are large enough. • Understand individual differences in valences. • Use the Pygmalion effect to increase (E) expectancies. (High expectations become self-fulfilling prophecy.)
TECHNIQUES FORSELF-MOTIVATION Many people never achieve satisfying careers or realize their potential because of low motivation. The following suggestions can help fix the problem: • Set goals for yourself. (Goal setting is a major self-motivation technique.) • Find intrinsically motivating work. (Some work is fun or its own reward.)
Self-Motivation Techniques, continued • Get feedback on your performance. (Positive feedback acts as a reward.) • Apply behavior modification to yourself. (Decide which actions you want to increase, then choose suitable rewards and punishments.) • Improve your skills relevant to your work goals (Appropriate training enhances your self-confidence.)
Self-Motivation Techniques, concluded • Raise your level of self-expectation. (According to the Galatea effect if your raise your level of self-expectation, you will achieve more.) • Develop a strong work ethic. (Commitment to the idea that work is valuable and joyful automatically leads to strong motivation.)