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PIS : Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication PowerPoint Presentation
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PIS : Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication

PIS : Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication

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PIS : Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication

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  1. PIS: Unit IIIDigital Signature & Authentication Sanjay Rawat Sanjay_r@vnrvjiet.in Based on the slides of Lawrie Brown together with the book “Cryptography and Network Security” by William Stalling. PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  2. Digital Signature • is an authentication mechanism that enables the creator of a message to attach a code that acts as a signature. • The signature is formed by taking the hash of the message and encrypting the message with the creator's private key. • The signature guarantees the source and integrity of the message. PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  3. DS requirements • The signature must be a bit pattern that depends on the message being signed. • The signature must use some information unique to the sender, to prevent both forgery and denial. • It must be relatively easy to produce the digital signature. • It must be relatively easy to recognize and verify the digital signature. • It must be computationally infeasible to forge a digital signature, either by constructing a new message for an existing digital signature or by constructing a fraudulent digital signature for a given message. • It must be practical to retain a copy of the digital signature in storage PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  4. DS types • Direct DS • Using shared key, but non-repudiation? • Arbitrated DS • Involves a trusted third party that checks for all requirements and validity PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  5. Arbitrated DS PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  6. X.509 Authentication Service • part of CCITT X.500 directory service standards • distributed servers maintaining user info database • defines framework for authentication services • directory may store public-key certificates • with public key of user signed by certification authority • also defines authentication protocols • uses public-key crypto & digital signatures • algorithms not standardised, but RSA recommended • X.509 certificates are widely used

  7. X.509 Certificates • issued by a Certification Authority (CA), containing: • version (1, 2, or 3) • serial number (unique within CA) identifying certificate • signature algorithm identifier • issuer X.500 name (CA) • period of validity (from - to dates) • subject X.500 name (name of owner) • subject public-key info (algorithm, parameters, key) • issuer unique identifier (v2+) • subject unique identifier (v2+) • extension fields (v3) • signature (of hash of all fields in certificate) • notation CA<<A>> denotes certificate for A signed by CA

  8. X.509 Certificates

  9. Example from wiki PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat

  10. Kerberos • trusted key server system from MIT • provides centralised private-key third-party authentication in a distributed network • allows users access to services distributed through network • without needing to trust all workstations • rather all trust a central authentication server • two versions in use: 4 & 5

  11. Kerberos Requirements • its first report identified requirements as: • secure • reliable • transparent • scalable • implemented using an authentication protocol based on Needham-Schroeder

  12. Kerberos v4 Overview • a basic third-party authentication scheme • have an Authentication Server (AS) • users initially negotiate with AS to identify self • AS provides a non-corruptible authentication credential (ticket granting ticket TGT) • have a Ticket Granting server (TGS) • users subsequently request access to other services from TGS on basis of users TGT

  13. Kerberos v4 Dialogue • obtain ticket granting ticket from AS • once per session • obtain service granting ticket from TGT • for each distinct service required • client/server exchange to obtain service • on every service request

  14. Kerberos 4 Overview