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Osteology(2). Department of Anatomy Luzhou medical college. Edited by professor Xiao. Review the contents of the last lesson. 1. The suppose axes of the human body are? 2. The sections or planes of the human body on the basis of the axis?

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osteology 2


Department of Anatomy

Luzhou medical college

Edited by professor Xiao

review the contents of the last lesson
Review the contents of the last lesson

1. The suppose axes of the human body are?

2. The sections or planes of the human body on the basis of the axis?

3. Which types of the development of the bone?(membranous and cartilaginous ossification)

4.The characteristics of the long bone?

  • (Epiphyses ,Epiphysial cartilage,Epiphysial lines,Articular surface)

5. Which bone exists the red marrow in life?

6. The periosteum (Endosteum) are two layers (outer is the fibrous and inner the membrenous )(Osteoblast,Osteoclast)

the bones of trunk
The Bones of Trunk
  • The vertebrae
  • In the child, 33
  • The general features
  • Vertebral body
  • Vertebral arch
  • Vertebral foramen
  • Vertebral canal
  • Pedicles and laminae of vertebral arch
  • Intervertebral foramen
  • Processes :
  • Spinous
  • Transverse
  • articular

Vertebral body

Superior costal fossa

Spinous process

The thoracic vertebra


The main characteristics of vertebrae in each region

1.Thoracic vertebrae: costal facets on each side of their body

2. The cervical vertebrae: transverse foramen.

Atlas: Anterior arch and posterior arch and a lateral mass.

Fovea dentis, groove for vertebral artery.

Axis: dens or odontoid process

Vertebra prominens: nonbifid spine is long and easily felt.

3. Lumbar vertebrae: The spines are strong, square and horizontal

4. sacrum: It is made up of five fused vertebrae and roughly triangular. There are three surfaces

Promontory of sacrum, anterior and posterior foramina, lateral masses, ala, median sacral crest, intermediate and lateral crests


Dorsal sacral foramina, sacral canal, sacral hiatus, sacral cornu or horns, auricular

surface, sacral tuberosity.

5. coccyx: It is made up of four, more or less, coccygeal vertebrae



The sternum

Flat bone

Internal plate

External plate


  • Two parts: costal bone
  • costal cartilage
  • General features of the costal bone
  • Costal bone: one body, two extremities, two surfaces and two borders
  • Head(articular facet of head, articular facet of costal tubercle, neck,shaft and tubercle.
  • Costal groove
  • Angle of rib

Thoracic cage

The composition

True ribs

False ribs

Floating ribs

Intercostal space

the bones of the limbs
The bones of the limbs
  • The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of upper limbs and those of the lower limbs. The bones of the upper and lower limbs are constructed after a common type, but the different functions for which they have become adapted in man, because of the erect standing in human being, have led to structural differences of a very definite kind.
The upper limbs are released from weight bearing and become the organs of labour with greater and delicated mobility, so, the bones of upper limbs are lighter and smaller in shape and size. The bones of lower limbs are very heavy and strong so as bear the weight of the body and to provide movement of the whole body. Each limb has a girdle, which connects it to the trunk, and three segments. In the upper limb, these are the shoulder girdle, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand. In the lower limb, those are the pelvic girdle, the thigh, the leg and the foot.
the bones of upper limb
The bones of upper limb
  • The shoulder
  • Girdle
  • The clavicle
  • Lies almost horizontally on each side of the neck, extending from the sternum to the acromion of the scapula

The bones of the free upper limb

Those include the bone of the arm, the bones of the forearm and the bones of hand (the carpal bones, metacarpal bones and phalanges)

The bone of arm


The humerus

is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb. It extends from the scapula to

the elbow joint and has a body and two ends


The bones of forearm

The radius

The radius is the lateral bone of the two in the forearm. It has a shaft and two ends.

The proximal end

A head, neck and tuberosity;

head is disc-shaped and its upper surface is a shallow cup—articular fovea for articulation with the capitulum of the humerus. Its articular circumference articulates with radial notch of the ulna.

Shaft of radius: interosseous border

Distal end

Ulnar notch, styloid process, carpal articular surface

the bones of hand
The bones of hand
  • Three parts: the carpal bones, the metacarpal bones and phalanges
  • The carpal bones
  • There are eight short bones, arranged in two rows of four
  • Proximal row from lateral to medial include :
  • Distal row from lateral to medial include:
the metacarpal bones
The metacarpal bones
  • Which are five in number, connect with the carpal bones above and the phalanges below.
  • Base
  • Shaft
  • Distal head
  • The first metacarpal bones is short and stout; its base is saddle shaped for articularion with the trapezium
the phalanges
The phalanges
  • They are long bones
  • They are known as the proximal, middle and the distal phlanx
  • Base
  • Head
  • Distal end
the bones of lower limbs
The bones of lower limbs
  • The lower limb which is similar to the upper, is connected to the trunk by a girdle, the pelvix girdle, the free lower limb is divided into three segements, the thigh, the leg and the foot.

The pelvic girdle

is formed by a hip bone on each side.

They articulate posteriorly with the sacrum and meet below and in front at the pubic symphysis

Bony pelvis =the pelvis girdle