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Chapter 6. Indian Removal. Indian Removal. 1783-1838 One of the darkest periods in Indian (Native American) history. Forced out of their traditional lands and moved to unknown territories . Georgia was no exception. James Vann. Cherokee Indian Chief Plantation owner Had slaves

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Indian Removal

indian removal
Indian Removal


One of the darkest periods in Indian (Native American) history.

  • Forced out of their traditional lands and moved to unknown territories.
  • Georgia was no exception
james vann
James Vann
  • Cherokee Indian Chief
  • Plantation owner
    • Had slaves
    • Murray County, GA
  • Indians still hunters and farmers…
  • Contributed to advancement of the Cherokee Nation.

Chief James Vann

The Vann House

  • George Gist
  • Cherokee Indian
  • “Lonely Lame One”
  • Blacksmith
  • Interested in the “white man’s talking leaves” (letters)
  • Created an alphabet and syllabary for the Cherokee spoken language.
    • 1st tribe to have a written language
    • 12 years to complete
    • Received 1st North American literary prize ($500/year)
  • Syllabary: a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables (sounds)
    • Without closing lips

Sequoyah-George Gist

Sequoyah’s Alphabet

cherokee phoenix
Cherokee Phoenix
  • Elias Boudinot: editor of the first Indian newspaper (Cherokee Phoenix)
    • United the tribes of the Cherokee Nation from Alabama to Virginia
  • Cherokee capital used to be where ever the ‘principal’ chief lived
    • i.e.. Stephens County (1715)
  • Permanent capital established at New Echota
    • Present day Gordon County
    • Library, courthouses and newspaper located here
    • Followed almost identical form of government as the United States and Georgia (Constitutions)
indian and settler conflicts
Indian and Settler Conflicts

A constant conflict remained between the Indians and westward moving settlers.

  • Some settlers and traders cheated, tricked, and enslaved Indians…increasing the tensions.

Capitol building at New Echota

the yamasee war 1715
The Yamasee War (1715)
  • The Yamasee (Creek) Tribe attacked and killed South Carolinian traders in coastal towns.
  • The settlers plan to defeat a larger Indian force was to divide the tribes to fight against one another
    • Lower Creeks going to meet the Cherokee to talk about war plans were instead attacked by them causing a split that would last for years
      • The Creeks eventually moved west (inland)
      • The ones that remained were the same that would go on to help Oglethorpe
the french and indian war
The French and Indian War


“The Seven Years War”

  • Fought over fur trading rights of North America, Atlantic, and territorial disputes.
    • Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
    • Virginia Governor Dinwiddie sent George Washington to the French Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) with an ultimatum to leave.
    • After a French reply of “No’ Washington returned with British troops and was defeated at Great Meadows, PA.
  • Ultimatum: a threat to take action if a demand is not met (“or else”)

Governor Dinwiddie

Washington surrendering to the French

french and indian war

Indian Allies:

Cherokee, Delaware, Shawnee, Ottawa…

Most tribes sided with the French

Fighting Methods:

Hiding behind trees ad in the cover of the forest (Guerrilla War)


Indian Allies:


Fighting Methods:

Dressed in bright uniforms, marched in formation, with drums pounding and band playing

French and Indian War
f i war events
F & I War Events
  • 1759: The British capture of Quebec
    • Signaled the end of French power in North America
  • 1763: Congress of Augusta:
    • Governors from Georgia, SC, NC, and Virginia met with Indian representatives
      • Indian Chiefs promised peace and gave up much of their land
  • Treaty of Paris of 1763:
    • France-gave up North American territory EAST of the Mississippi River
    • Spain-lost Florida

Quebec 1759

proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
  • Established boundaries to preserve the peace between the Indians and the colonists.
    • Colonists could settle in all areas EAST of the Appalachian Mountains
    • Georgia’s southern boundary was extended to the St. Mary’s River
the oconee war
The Oconee War
  • During the late 1700s, as pioneer settlements pushed into Creek lands, bad feelings started to arise along the Oconee River region.
    • Indians attacked settlements and pioneers were ordered to shoot the Creek on sight.
    • Creek Chief: Alexander McGillivray
  • Pres. Washington and McGillivray met in New York to discuss a peace.
    • Treaty of New York:
    • Creek gave up land East of the Oconee River
    • Money given to Creek
    • U.S. promised no settlers West of the Oconee River
    • Government would give farming equip.
  • Both side ignored the treaty
  • Smaller treaties maintained a fragile peace until 1812.

Alexander McGillivray

war against the creek indians
War Against the Creek Indians

Georgia’s version of the War of 1812

  • Red Sticks: Creek Indians who wanted war and allied themselves with the British
  • White Sticks: Creek Indians who wanted peace

Fort Mims

  • 1000 Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims (Alabama) killing 400 settlers, army officers, and White Sticks.
    • U.S. troops from Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi Territories rallied.
      • “Remember Fort Mims!”
battle of horseshoe bend
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
  • No battles in Georgia against British troops during the War of 1812.

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

  • General Andrew Jackson: led a group of U.S. soldiers against Red Stick Creeks and defeating them.
    • The Creek united nation was now becoming divided and separated; weakening with every defeat.

Andrew Jackson Collage

monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine

President James Monroe

  • No European nation could establish new colonies in the Western hemisphere.
  • No European nation could intervene in the affairs of independent New World nations.
  • The United States would not interfere in European affairs, including any already established colonies in the New World.
instrumental people
Instrumental People

Dahlonega Gold Coin

Governor George Troup

glass treaties
“Glass” Treaties
  • Treaty of Indian Springs: Chief William McIntosh and Georgia Governor George Troup (Cousins!) arranged to have Indian lands given to Georgia in exchange for $200,000
    • Many Creeks disagreed with the Treaty and murdered McIntosh at his home in Carroll County.
  • Treaty of Washington: 2 million acres of land were to be set aside for Creek living and farming in the Alabama and Mississippi Territories.
    • Creek could then own the land after 5 years.
    • Treaty was almost instantly broken by frontiersmen who burned and looted Indian homes, while also killing many Indians.
      • U.S. Army intervened and moved 1000 Creek to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma
      • To help stop this removal the Creek offered to help the U.S. fight in the Seminole War in Florida…didn’t work.
  • James Fenimore Cooper: “The Last of the Mohicans”
indian removal act
Indian Removal Act
  • 1828: Andrew Jackson elected President
    • Was allied with the Indians when fighting against the Red Sticks
    • Allied with Southern whites after the fighting was over
      • VOTES!
  • Indian Removal Act (1830):
    • Called for Indians to be moved to the western territories (Oklahoma)
    • Passed by only 14 votes in Congress
  • Georgia Creek and Cherokee conditions:
    • Lost hunting grounds (starving)
    • Begging for food (Columbus)
    • Smallpox
  • Gold in Dahlonega!
    • “Discovered” by Benjamin Parks (Cherokee had known)
    • Auraria: first gold mining center in the U.S.
    • As miners moved in, disputes arose between the white man’s laws and the Indians (Even rights to the gold)
missionaries in georgia
Missionaries in Georgia
  • Missionaries helped the Indians with many aspects of life…religion, farming, government, and decent.
  • 1830: Georgia passed a law stating that any white person could not live on Indian land without taking an “oath of allegiance”.
    • Samuel Worchester and Elizur Butler (Missionaries) arrested for failing to take oath
    • Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in their favor
      • Gwinnett County refused to release them and President Andrew Jackson said, “John Marshall has rendered his decision; now let him enforce it!”

Chief Justice John Marshall

the trail of tears
The Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee Chief John Ross made several last ditch effort trips to Washington to ask Congress for help…None came!
  • Treaty of New Echota: Cherokee summoned to their Capital and told to sign the treaty giving up their rights to all remaining southeastern land.
    • 2000 Cherokee agreed to sign and move west for money and assistance.
    • 15000 Cherokee refused to sign; staying behind.
      • These are the Indians that would become “The Trail of Tears”
the trail of tears21
The Trail of Tears
  • General Winfield Scott was ordered to remove the remaining 15000 Cherokee
    • They were rounded up and placed in stockades where hundreds died of illness
      • Internment Camps
    • Two routes:
      • Crowded boats using a river passage
      • Others began an 800 mile walk to the new Indian territory
        • Food was scarce
        • Boats dirty
        • Sickness and starvation
  • Major Ridge, a Cherokee trader, and his son, as well as Elias Boudinot were killed by the other Indians for signing the treaty without tribal approval.
  • Emigrated: move out or away from
  • ANuna-da-ut-sun’y: “The trail where they cried!”
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