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Connecting Medical Devices to Cell Phones

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  1. Connecting Medical Devices to Cell Phones Mentor: Prof. K. Mani Chandy Co-Mentor: Dr. Julian Bunn By: Victor Chu & Aleksander Palatnik October 2009

  2. Agenda • Who Supported Us • Modern Medicine • Stethoscope • Electrocardiogram • Objectives • Platform • Stethoscope & Results • Electrocardiogram & Results • Future Plans • Acknowledgments & References

  3. Who • Infospheres Group • Sense and Respond • Prof. K Mani Chandy • Projects include: • Virtual Environments for Radiation Detection • The Event Driven Web • Personal Monitors • Dr. Julian Bunn • Prof. Chanhuei Yang

  4. Modern Medicine • Expensive Devices • Spirometer • Device: $10 - $500+ • Echocardiograms (Ultrasound) • Procedure + Interpretation: $250 - $600 • Electrocardiogram • Device: $300 - $1500 • Procedure + Interpretation: $30 - $60 • Stethoscope • Device: $1 - $300 • Procedure + Interpretation: $45 - $80 • Preliminary Screening

  5. Stethoscope • Auscultation • Measurement and interpretation of • heart sounds • A bell with a diaphragm amplifies the audio produced by blood moving within the heart • 1-3Hz signal from heart beat • Higher frequencies from turbulence (Murmurs)

  6. Electrocardiogram • Transthoracic interpretation of electrical activity of the heart • Multiple Leads – Can be 3, 5, 12, etc. • High Pass Filter 1 Hz • Low Pass Filter 40 Hz

  7. Objective • Connecting Medical Devices to Cell phones • Cell phones are ubiquitous • Powerful processors • Ability to transmit data • Stethoscope • Inexpensive and simple device • Can indicate many heart problems • Electrocardiogram • Relatively inexpensive platform • Extremely valuable diagnostic tool

  8. Platform • G1 Google Android phone (HTC Dream) • Developer’s Edition • Java • Android Emulator • Samsung SGH-A737 • Testing Purposes

  9. Stethoscope Connections • Littman Stethoscope • $50 - $300 • Budget Stethoscope • $1 - $5 • 3M Poster Strips • Used to create a seal between • stethoscope and microphone • Strip of foam with adhesive • on both sides

  10. Stethoscope Results • Stethoscope Recording • Performed several recordings using a built-in laptop microphone with the Audacity program • Applied noise-reduction, amplification • Low-cost stethoscope: • Littmann stethoscope:

  11. Stethoscope Results • Peak-finding algorithm • Time-domain only • Based on Envelope • Peak determination by variable thresholding • Median Filter • Looking between peaks yields murmur level • Functional up to medium-severity murmur

  12. Electrocardiogram Connections • Passive Analog Circuit • 9 Volt Battery Power Source • 400x amplification • Analog output

  13. Electrocardiogram Connections • 3 Leads • Body • 2 Signal • Pre–1984 Pennies + Lotion • Copper • Q-Trace Electrodes

  14. Electrocardiogram Results Laptop Results Audacity High Pass Filter 1 Hertz, Low Pass Filter 40 Hertz

  15. Electrocardiogram Results Waves identifiable P, Q, R, S components visible T Wave not visible

  16. Future Plans • Develop software for stethoscope System • Migrate code to cellular phone system • Improve artifact resistance • Improve pathology detection • Develop better hardware for ECG system • Stabilize system • Implement more efficient designs • Minimize costs

  17. Acknowledgements • Prof. K. Mani Chandy • Dr. Julian Bunn • Dr. Danny Petrasek • Prof. Al Barr • Prof. Chanhuei Yang • Surf Office

  18. Thank You and Have a good summer! Victor Chu Aleks Palatnik

  19. References [1] "Spirometry." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 14 Sep 2009, 13:30 UTC. 14 Sep 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spirometry&oldid=313847691>. [2] "Angiography." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Sep 2009, 23:14 UTC. 24 Sep 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Angiography&oldid=316017407>. [3] Cardiac electrophysiology. (2009, September 24). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:40, September 24, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cardiac_electrophysiology&oldid=315827127 [4] "Stethoscope." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 20 Sep 2009, 20:36 UTC. 20 Sep 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stethoscope&oldid=315161008>.\ [5] "Aortic aneurysm." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 14 Sep 2009, 23:17 UTC. 14 Sep 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aortic_aneurysm&oldid=313989527>. [6] "The Stethoscope - Essential Medical Equipment." Information and Advice for Medical Students: Stethoscope. 24 Sep 2009 <http://www.davidgregory.org/medical/stethoscope.htm>.

  20. References [7] "The Ultimate Acoustic Stethoscope Review." The Consumer Magazine For Doctors. 24 Sep 2009 <http://www.forusdocs.com/reviews/Acoustic_Stethoscope_Review.htm> . [8] "Electrocardiography." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Sep 2009, 14:21 UTC. 24 Sep 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electrocardiography&oldid=315919139>. [9] "Homemade Electrocardiograph." Homemade Electrocardiograph. 24 Sep 2009<http://www.eng.utah.edu/~jnguyen/ecg/ecg_index.html> . [10] “Cost of Services” Harvard Pilgrim Health Care. 16 Oct 2009. 16 Oct 2009 <https://www.harvardpilgrim.org/portal/page?_pageid=253,192924&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL> [11] “EKG Machines” Medical Device Depot Inc. 16 Oct 2009. 16 Oct 2009 <http://www.medicaldevicedepot.com/EKG-Machines-s/70.htm>