Introduction to Biodiesel - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Biodiesel

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  1. Introduction to Biodiesel

  2. Topics covered • Disclaimer • What is Biodiesel • Why to make Bio-Diesel • How it all works • Making a small amount • Scaling up • Process of making it • Refining and improving the process • Pros & Cons of Bio-Diesel • Legal issues with Bio-diesel • Other Uses for Bio-Diesel • By-Products of Bio-Diesel • Future for Bio-Diesel

  3. Disclaimer • No Expert • Production of Bio-Diesel involves harmful chemical and possibly harmful situations • If you hurt yourself, it’s your fault. • Investigate more before attempting

  4. What is Biodiesel • A bio-fuel made by converting vegetable oil or animal fats using a process called Transesterification • It is an alternative to petro-diesel that we use everyday • It is suitable for nearly all makes of diesel engine

  5. Why to make Bio-Diesel • Price • Costs approximately 30cent per litre to make instead of 120cent (if you receive waste/straight oil free) and depending on where fuel tax • Interest • Because you are interested in knowing a bit more about the diesel engine, interest in chemistry, maybe you just like building stuff or messing about • Environment • Because it is environmentally friendlier, no sulphates, considerably lower carbon dioxide and monoxide, non toxic (table salt, degrades quicker than sugar), does have slightly higher nitrogen oxide levels, far less particulates because of a higher cetane level • Your annoyed with the war in Iraq, oil companies and big business • You may just be conscious about the wars and wish to have a local supply of fuel

  6. How it all works • Diesel & petrol are both hydrocarbons • How does diesel engine work as opposed to petrol • Diesel will burn any hydrocarbon, as long as it can get in to piston chamber. First diesel engine fuels • Difference between an SVO conversion and using Bio-Diesel • Process of Transesterification

  7. Easy as that

  8. Make a Small Batch • What you need to start making it on a small scale (experiment size) • 2 litre plastic bottle • Pot • 1 litre of clean veg oil • 6-7 grams of NaOH 'Sodium Hydroxide' (caustic soda) - Can use KOH 'Potassium Hydroxide' (Potash) 9 gm • 200ml of methanol • Thermometer • Gloves • Weighing scales • Smaller mixing container (Glass) • Funnel

  9. Scaling up • Large container with a heating element (set to not go higher than 50 degrees) • Large supply of oil (clean/used) • Larger supply of NaOH & Methanol • Gloves • Big weighing scales (capable of .01 of gram) • Breathing apparatus (optional) • Large mixing container • titration kit (only needed with used oil)

  10. Process of Making Bio-Diesel • Retrieving oil - (dirty & clean) • Heating oil - (using pot or heating element) • Calculate Methanol & NaOH needed • Calculating FFA Content - (titration test - used oil), work out needed amount of extra NaOH that will have to be added to neutralise FFA • Mix and make Methoxide • Add Methoxide to Oil • Mix everything together • Wait and then separate - after separation you have Bio-Diesel

  11. Refining and Improving the Process • Pre-Transesterification • Oil Preparation - Cleaning and filtering the oil (lowers FFA & makes easier to flow and separate, de-watering the oil (soap build-up) • During Transesterification • 5% pre-wash - Why?

  12. Post-Transesterification- Cleaning Bio-Diesel • Why We Should • Different Methods (Wet Washing, Dry Washing & Waiting) - Mist Wash, Bubble Wash, Forced water washing, Magnasol or other chemical/alternative washes (Hardwood Shavings/Gypsum) - How each works, Pros and cons of each • When to stop washing - Caveats I found)

  13. Post-Transesterification- Drying Bio-Diesel • Only needed in wet washing • Open Air • Heating • Spraying or combinations • When to stop • Methanol recovery • Heating and condensing

  14. Pros & Cons of Bio-Diesel • Cons • Bacteria • Susceptible to water penetration • Higher gelling point (depends on oil source, can use winterising agents, add diesel) • Could violate warranty • Lower miles per gallon/Kilometers per litre • Environmentally - Higher nitrogen oxide level • Solvent - Older cars with rubber hoses, paint work, will probably need a new fuel filter after 2-3rd fill up

  15. Pros • Not hard to make • Cheaper (prices depends on oil type & tax) • Lubrication of engine • Environmentally - Low CO2, Sulphates, particulates& quickly bio-degrades • Non Toxic • Higher cetane level • Solvent - Cleans the carbon, dirt & sludge out of pistons, injectors and tank

  16. Legal issues with bio-diesel • Tax - In Ireland you are supposed to record your usage amount and pay 13.5% fuel tax (not sure how they calculate it) • Collecting Waste Oil

  17. Other Uses for Bio-Diesel • Home Heating • Tool De-greaser • Oil for lamps • Give lubricity to petro-diesel • Paint remover

  18. By-Products of Bio-Diesel • Uses and DisposalGlycerine • making high quality soap • fire logs or burnt in special burners • refined and sold • animal feed • composting • bio-gas production • Contaminated Water

  19. Future for Bio-Diesel • Algae • Produces 10 times more oil than other crop, can be grown on waste ground rather than usable ground, doesn't compete with the food supply, needs no titration, can use/offset CO2 (feeds on it and scrubs it), produces only oxygen and then biomass that can be dried and burnt or feed to animals