Biodiesel By: Aneesa Yousefi
Quick Reminder! • This information will help you in the game after the presentation!
What is Biodiesel? • Biodiesel is a diesel fuel that consists of vegetable oil or animal fat; it is typically made by chemically reacting lipids. It consists of a long chain of alkyl esters (chemical compounds formed by reacting oxoacid with hydroxyl groups). • There are different variations to biodiesel: -- There is 100% biodiesel called B100 -- B20 consists of 80% petrodiesel but 20% biodiesel* -- B5 consists of 95% petrodiesel but 5% biodiesel* -- B2 consists of 98% petrodiesel but only 2% biodiesel (*used in United States)
What is the main goal of Biodiesel? • Like any renewable resource, the goal of biodiesel is to provide for a clean environment. With biodiesel, we could reduce the CO2 emissions we get from normally burning gasoline in our cars. Oil, or fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource, but with biodiesel, we have no worry of running out because supply comes from plants we grow (soybeans, corn, etc.) Biodiesel aims for a sustainable earth, reducing greenhouse gases & pollution. • In technology, Biodiesel’s main target is automobiles (B5), but it could also be used for trains (B20), airplanes, and for heating oil.
How do we store this energy? • When biodiesel is made, it needs special storing facilities until it is used. Biodiesel is stored in liquid form in a clean, dark, dry place. Storage tank materials include aluminum, steel, fluorinated polyethylene, teflon, etc. Copper, brass, lead, tin, etc. must be avoided. Even though it can be stored, this energy does have a shelf-life.
How do we convert it to energy? • Biodiesel is converted to energy by method of combustion, or burning it. Diesel engines are efficient in combusting the biodiesel, but release and waste heat as energy. • Another way biodiesel can be converted into energy includes the use of fuel cells, which capture electricity from chemical reactions, similar to how a battery works. It uses hydrogen and oxygen to work, however it is very expensive.
Who uses this source of energy and why? • Many countries began using biodiesel as a source of energy including the UK, Germany, and other parts of Europe. The United States is also known for its use of biodiesel, and today, we’ll focus on our country. • In the US, biodiesel is used by many including state and municipal governments, school districts, US department of defense, agriculture, commercial trucking, cruise ships, etc. The largest user is the US Navy. The reason why biodiesel is used is because it helps to promote a healthy environment and sustainability; In April 2006, the Governor of CA called for Executive Order to promote use of biodiesel fuel.
Where do we get it from? • Biodiesel comes from a variety of sources: • --Virgin oil sources: includes rapeseed and soybean oils, pennycress and jatropha crops, mustard, jojoba, sunflower, coconut, palm oil. • -- WVO= Waste Vegetable Oil • -- Animal Fats such as tallow, lard, yellow grease, chicken fat, and by-products from Omega 3 fatty acids that are found in fish oil. • -- Algae grown using sewage.
Countries or regions where we get Biodiesel • The United States itself produces biodiesel enough for our people to use. We are dependent, but not that dependent on other nations to import biodiesel because our agriculture produces the crops necessary to make this fuel. We export biodiesel to other nations in Europe (i.e. we export rapeseed to Germany). • Indonesia in 2006 exported biodiesel to the United States, and Argentina is another region where we could acquire our fuel.
3 Advantages; & 3 Disadvantages • 3 Advantages in using Biodiesel: • i) It reduces greenhouse gas emissions and pollution to air • ii) Reduces foreign oil (petroleum) dependence • iii) encourages sustainability • 3 Disadvantages in using Biodiesel: • i) deforestation • ii)Fuel versus food idea (using crops for fuel rather than feeding people.) • iii)has higher NOx emissions.
How does biodiesel affect the big 4? • The big 4 includes Air, Water, Soil, and Organisms • Biodiesel affects the air in that it reduces green house gas emissions into the atmosphere, however, it does release NOx into the air. • Biodiesel affects the water in that crops such as corn or soybeans require a lot of water for growth and more water is used as agriculture expands with land use. • Soil is affected from biodiesel in that deforestation happens more with growing land demands for crop usage, so there is a greater possibility of soil erosion. • Organisms are effected in that once there is increase of deforestation, habitats are disturbed and destroyed.
How do we buy and sell it? • Different countries that produce biodiesel could import materials or fuel into their country and also export it to other nations as well. For example, the US exports its biofuel to some European nations. In the United States, companies like Shell purchase biodiesel in order to sell it and distribute it to customers at gas stations. • Farms in the U.S. could purchase processing units of biodiesel for their equipment to start their own production of biodiesel crops. This is another method of buying and selling the energy source.
How could it impact the world? • Using Biodiesels could have a great impact on our earth. Our world is very dependent on fossil fuels, or oil and coal—which are nonrenewable. But what will happen if we run out in the future? By using Biodiesel, we will never run out because it is a renewable resource. We could grow the crops needed to produce our fuel over and over again without worrying if it will run out. • However, it is important to keep in mind that deforestation could become a huge problem in producing biodiesel. If more land is clear-cut to use for crops, then many species’ habitats will be destroyed, soil would become eroded, and green-house gas could increase, even though biodiesel targets that problem already. • By switching to biodiesel, our air could be cleaner from less CO2 and earth’s temperature could cease to increase so high, however, biodiesel does release nitrous oxides. • By switching to Biodiesel gasoline and cars, many could save money because this resource isn’t scarce like petroleum is today.
Renewable or nonrenewable? Why? • Biodiesel is an RENEWABLE resource. The reason why it is renewable is because we get this fuel from crops such as corn or soybeans, which we can grow over and over again as long as the land is kept in favorable conditions. These crops get their energy from the sun, which is also renewable. Burning biodiesel releases water and CO2 which is used for the next growing season.
Any political or economic barriers to cross? • Congress has passed different Tax Incentives to gain a positive impact on the biodiesel industry and to promote sustainability. • [Tax credit: is the sum deducted from the total amount a taxpayer pays.] • As a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Small Agri-Biodiesel Producer Tax Credit was established. Producing biodiesel gives tax credit. Another Tax Credit includes the Alternative Fuel Refueling Infrastructure, in that if B20 or higher biodiesel is produced, a sum is deducted. • Based on the Clean Air Act (a political barrier), biodiesel is encouraged to be used by all and to be promoted for use. • An economic barrier includes how algal oil production is very expensive to produce and because of federal budget cuts.
It’s Game Time!! • We are to play “Snakes & Ladders: Biodiesel Edition” • I’m going to ask a question to each person one by one. The student who answers the question will get to roll the dice to move their game piece across the board. If he/she doesn’t know the answer to the question, it will be passed on to the next person.(If no one could answer the question, everyone moves down a step, and we move on to the next question.) • If you land on the ladder, you move up. If you land on the snake, you move down. • Objective: get to “100” to win the game