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The Ancient World

The Ancient World

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The Ancient World

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  1. The Ancient World

  2. First Humans • 100,0000 years ago. • From Africa to Asia, to Europe • Hunters • Worshipped forces of nature

  3. Paleolithic • 40,000-8,000 B.C. • Cave artists • Lascaux, France—bulls, humans • Caves used for ritual ceremonies

  4. Neolithic • 8000-2300 B.C. • Megalithic structures—Stonehenge • Post-and-lintel structures aligned with astronomical prositions

  5. Bronze Age • 2300-1000 B.C. • Began to cultivate the land • Civilization in Mesopotamia

  6. Mesopotamia • Present-day Iraq • The arts, writ6ing and law flourished • Empires dominated the Near East and northern Africa

  7. The Sumerians • 3500 B.C. • First people to use writing • Constructed monumental buildings • Music • Religion: violence • Ziggurats: pyramids with steps to the hereafter

  8. Empires of the Near East • Gilgamesh: hero-king of the Old Babylonians • Great Flood also recounted in the Hebrew Bible • Hammurabi’s legal code • Assyrians conquered lower Egypt • Nebuchadnezzar II – Ishtar Gate • Persians: Darius’ palace at Persepolis • Persepolis fell to Alexander the Great

  9. Egypt: Religion and Society • Polytheism • Pyramids of Giza • Belief in the immortality of the spirit • Treasures buried to ensure happiness after death

  10. The Arts of Egypt • Akhenaten: cult of the god Aten • Established court at Amarna with his queen Nefertiti • Intimacy in the pictorial depiction of humans • Tutankhamen: restores cult of Amon-Re • Ramesses II: monumental, richly-decorated tombs • Nefertari: his wife helped expand empire

  11. Decline of Egypt • Kush empire • Assyrians • Persians • Alexander the Great: Hellenistic culture

  12. The Indus Valley • 2600-1500 B.C. • Unfortified cities • System of writing, terracotta sculpture • Aryans conquered 1500 B.C. • Vedas: religious texts • Hinduism

  13. China • The Bronze Age • Shang dynasty (1700-1100 B.C.) • Carved jade, cast bronze • Zhou (1100-221 B.C.)

  14. Minoan Civilization • Crete (2500-1250 B.C.) • Palace-cities • Artisans: jewelry, figurines • Women unusually free and equal

  15. Mycenaean Civilization • Greek mainland (1600-1150 B.C.) • Mycenaens: warriors and pirates • Treasure found in Mycenae includes the “Mask of Agamemnon” • After Trojan War, Mycenae fell