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The Ancient World. First Humans. 100,0000 years ago. From Africa to Asia to Europe Hunters Worshipped forces of nature. Paleolithic. 40,000-8,000 B.C. Cave artists Lascaux, France—bulls, humans Caves used for ritual ceremonies. Neolithic. 8000-2300 B.C.

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first humans
First Humans
  • 100,0000 years ago.
  • From Africa to Asia to Europe
  • Hunters
  • Worshipped forces of nature
paleolithic
Paleolithic
  • 40,000-8,000 B.C.
  • Cave artists
  • Lascaux, France—bulls, humans
  • Caves used for ritual ceremonies
neolithic
Neolithic
  • 8000-2300 B.C.
  • Megalithic structures—Stonehenge
  • Post-and-lintel structures aligned with astronomical positions
bronze age
Bronze Age
  • 2300-1000 B.C.
  • Began to cultivate the land
  • Civilization in Mesopotamia
mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
  • Present-day Iraq
  • The arts, writing and law flourished
  • Empires dominated the Near East and northern Africa
the sumerians
The Sumerians
  • 3500 B.C.
  • First people to use writing
  • Constructed monumental buildings
  • Music
  • Religion: violence
  • Ziggurats: pyramids with steps to the hereafter
empires of the near east
Empires of the Near East
  • Gilgamesh: hero-king of the Old Babylonians
  • Great Flood also recounted in the Hebrew Bible
  • Hammurabi’s legal code
  • Assyrians conquered lower Egypt
  • Nebuchadnezzar II – Ishtar Gate
  • Persians: Darius’ palace at Persepolis
  • Persepolis fell to Alexander the Great
egypt religion and society
Egypt: Religion and Society
  • Polytheism
  • Pyramids of Giza
  • Belief in the immortality of the spirit
  • Treasures buried to ensure happiness after death
the arts of egypt
The Arts of Egypt
  • Akhenaten: cult of the god Aten
  • Established court at Amarna with his queen Nefertiti
  • Intimacy in the pictorial depiction of humans
  • Tutankhamen: restores cult of Amon-Re
  • Ramesses II: monumental, richly-decorated tombs
  • Nefertari: his wife helped expand empire
decline of egypt
Decline of Egypt
  • Kush empire
  • Assyrians
  • Persians
  • Alexander the Great: Hellenistic culture
the indus valley
The Indus Valley
  • 2600-1500 B.C.
  • Unfortified cities
  • System of writing, terracotta sculpture
  • Aryans conquered 1500 B.C.
  • Vedas: religious texts
  • Hinduism
china
China
  • The Bronze Age
  • Shang dynasty (1700-1100 B.C.)
  • Carved jade, cast bronze
  • Zhou (1100-221 B.C.)
ancient america
Ancient America
  • Olmecs: 1500 B.C.
  • America’s “mother culture”
  • Cosmology, calendar-making, pyramids
  • Carved stone jaguar, serpents, and helmeted heads
ancient america1
Ancient America
  • Chavin in the Andes
  • Cultivation of crops, irrigation, and large-scale construction
  • Ancient city of Tiahuanaco, near Lake Titicaca
ancient america2
Ancient America
  • Early North Americans centered in Southwest and the Mississippi River
  • Most did not practice agriculture
  • No urban centers of population
  • Settlement was diffuse