Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Early Japanese Civilization Map: Japan Foreign Influences on Japan The Heian Period Korea Map: Korea Japan and Korea
Japan and Korea Main Idea Geography and cultural borrowing from China shaped the early civilizations of Japan and Korea. • Reading Focus • What factors shaped early Japanese civilization? • How did foreign influences shape life in early Japan? • What characteristics defined Japan’s Heian period? • What were the main events in the history of early Korea?
The Land The Elements • The nation of Japan consists of some 3,000 islands • Largest four islands form an archipelago, large island chain • Chain extends more than 1,500 miles and lies on Ring of Fire—zone of volcanoes, earthquakes • Japan home to hundreds of volcanoes, many active • Experiences frequent earthquakes • Subject to tsunamis, huge waves from underwater earthquakes • Typhoons also strike late in summer, early autumn Early Japanese Civilization The Japanese call their country Nippon, meaning “Land of the Rising Sun.” Japan sits on the eastern edge of the Pacific Ocean, at what feels like the origin of the sunrise in the east. This location and the geography of Japan has shaped life there since the earliest times. Only a small part of Japan is suitable for farming. Most Japanese have always lived in the river valleys and coastal plains.
The Sea • Nearness of sea has also shaped development of Japan • People never far from sea, even on larger islands • Early Japanese turned to sea for food, transportation • Sea also protected, isolated Japan during much of history • Separated from Neighbors • Japan separated from Korea by 100 miles of water, from China by 400 miles of water—large enough distances to prevent invasions • Only successful invasion of Japan occurred in World War II • Early Japanese developed own culture in relative isolation • China, Korea close enough to influence Japan’s culture later in time
Early Japan • Migration • Scientists think first people to settle in Japan migrated from Asian mainland • Early people hunters, gatherers; developed societies with distinct cultures • Oldest known Japanese culture, Ainu • Ainu • Ainu’s origin unknown, did not resemble other East Asians • More people migrated to Japan, Ainu driven onto northernmost island • Culture almost disappeared • Clans • People on islands south of Ainu became the Japanese • Clans developed, came to rule many villages • Each clan worshipped nature spirits, kami, believed to be their ancestors
Religious beliefs developed into Shinto religion Shinto, “way of the kami” Shinto religion: Everything in nature has a kami No sacred text, formal structure Shrines: Built to kami, ceremonies performed there Located in natural settings; red gateway, torii, marks entrance Shinto Religion
Emperors Powerful Clan • In time Japan’s emperors claimed to be living gods • Other clans eventually gained power over the Yamato • Did not remove Yamato emperor, but controlled him • As result, emperor often had no real authority, served as figurehead; this political system continued until 1900s • Amaterasu, the sun goddess, was one of most revered kami • First Japanese emperor said to be grandson of sun goddess • Emperor member of Yamato clan, which lived in rich farming region on island of Honshu • Did not control all Japan, but Yamato chiefs began to call themselves emperors of Japan The Yamato Clan
Identify Supporting Details What geographic factors have influenced Japan’s history and culture? Answer(s): geologically active region; steep mountains, thick forests, limited but fertile farmland, islands surrounded by the sea
Korean Influences Chinese Influences • Korean traders, travelers brought foreign influences; most originated in China • Korean scribes introduced Chinese writing to Japan • Korean monks introduced religion of Buddhism • Buddhism influenced Japanese art, architecture • Prince Shotoku helped spread Buddhism in Japan • Served as regent to Japanese empress, his aunt • Shotoku admired China, sent scholars to learn from Chinese • Knowledge from missions to Tang dynasty changed Japan in many ways Foreign Influences on Japan By the mid-500s, Japan had increased contact with its neighbors, Korea and China. Their cultures began to influence Japan.
Changes in Japan • Tang Influences • Chinese fashions, foods, tea became popular in Japan • Tang styles of art, music, dance, gardening also popular • Confucian Influences • Japanese adopted many Confucian ideas about family • Wives should obey husbands • Children should obey parents • Government Influences • Japanese adopted Tang ideas, including stronger central government, bureaucracy • Adopted law code similar to China’s, not civil service system • End of Influences • 800s, Tang dynasty declined, Japanese stopped sending missions to China • Transformed what they had learned, to create own culture, society
Find the Main Idea How did Chinese influences affect Japan during this period? Answer(s): gave Japan a written language; Buddhism spread from China to Japan; Chinese fashion and foods became popular; Japanese adopted some Chinese ideas about government
Life in the Heian Period Etiquette Women • Heian nobles lived in beautiful palaces, enjoyed lives of privilege • So removed from common people, many called selves “dwellers among the clouds” • Rules governed all aspects of court behavior, dress • Elaborate silk gowns for women • Proper way to write note, an art form • Everyone expected to write poetry • Women enjoyed writing, reading fictional prose • Lady Murasaki Shikibu greatest writer; The Tale of Genji, world’s first full-length novel, describes court life The Heian Period In 794 Japan’s emperor moved the capital to Heian, now called Kyoto. Many nobles moved to Heian, where they developed an elegant and stylish court society. At the Heian court, Japanese culture flowered.
Fujiwara family controlled Japan for most of Heian period Many Fujiwaras served as regent Fujiwaras often married daughters to heirs of throne Rich landowners with private armies eventually challenged Fujiwaras, Japan’s central government The Fujiwaras
Summarize Why was the Heian period a golden age of culture in Japan? Answer(s): A court culture grew; writing and art flourished.
Korea • Korean Peninsula • Juts from East Asian mainland, China to southwest, Japan to east • Location made Korea bridge for passage of people, culture, ideas • Also left region open to invasion • Geography • Much of peninsula covered by rugged mountains, limits land for agriculture • Mountain ranges run north and south along east coast • Main population centers in west; land flattens to plains • Early Korea • First Koreans nomadic peoples from northeastern Asia; formed clans • Developed own culture; but influenced by China’s Han dynasty, 108 BC • Adopted Confucianism, Chinese writing, political, agricultural methods
The Koryo Dynasty Society, Culture • 935, rebels defeated Silla Kingdom, founded Koryo dynasty, which lasted until 1392 • Continued to adopt Chinese ideas, worked for distinct Korean features • Civil service exam like China’s but only nobles could take test • Society divided between powerful nobility and the rest of the people • Culture thrived, artisans created pottery covered with celadon glaze • Improved on Chinese woodblock printing, created moveable type • Printed Buddhist texts Silla • After China’s Han dynasty, three rival kingdoms controlled Korea • 600s, rulers of one kingdom, Silla, allied with China, conquered rest • Silla then turned on Chinese; ruled all Korea by 670 • Agreed to pay tribute to China to ensure harmony, good will • Embraced many aspects of Chinese civilization, promoted Buddhism, created central government, bureaucracy based on Tang model
1200s, Mongols of Yuan China invaded, occupied Korea Forced Koryo’s rulers to pay immense tributes, enslaved many Koreans Took artisans to China Forced men to serve in Yuan military 1300s, Yuan dynasty weakened Koreans rebelled against Yuan 1392, Korean general founded new dynasty Mongol Occupation
Sequence What were the major events and periods in early Korean history? Answer(s): period of Han dynasty influence; period when Silla kingdom allied with Chinese; Koryo dynasty