parasitic worms l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Parasitic Worms PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Parasitic Worms

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 53

Parasitic Worms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 344 Views
  • Uploaded on

Parasitic Worms. Pathogenic Human Helminthes and Arthropods. Characteristics. Multicellular Well developed organ systems Reproductive Dioecious Hermaphrodite Worldwide Tropical, subtropical Survival of eggs Survival of larval stages Less developed Sanitation

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Parasitic Worms


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
parasitic worms

Parasitic Worms

Pathogenic Human Helminthes and Arthropods

characteristics
Characteristics
  • Multicellular
  • Well developed organ systems
  • Reproductive
    • Dioecious
    • Hermaphrodite
  • Worldwide
    • Tropical, subtropical
      • Survival of eggs
      • Survival of larval stages
    • Less developed
      • Sanitation
      • Intermediate host survival
life cycle
Life Cycle
  • Host
    • Definitive
    • Intermediate
  • Cycle
    • Egg  ingestion
    • Larvae ingestion, penetration, migration
    • Infectious stage  intermediate host
    • Adultreproduces
helminth types
Platyhelminths

Flatworms

Flukes

Trematodes

Flat, leaf shaped

Suckers

Named for location

Tapeworms

Cestodes

Long body

Scolex

Proglottid

Nematoda

Roundworms

Cylindrical body

Cuticle

Dioecious

Roundworms

Hookworms

Pinworms

Whipworms

Strongyles

Filaria

Helminth Types
pathogenesis
Direct Damage

Blockage

Worm size

Worm migration

granulomas

Pressure

Tissue

Necrosis

Migration

Turnover

Indirect Damage

Host response

Inflammation

Hypersensitivity

Mucosal changes

Pathogenesis
platyhelminths
PLATYHELMINTHS
  • Flat body
  • Hermaphrodites
  • Parasitic
    • Trematodes
    • Cestodes
flukes trematodes
Schistostomiasis

Fascioliasis

Intestinal Fluke

Chinese Liver Fluke

Lung Fluke

Life Cycle

Eggs

Miracidia

Intermediate host

Cercariae

Second intermediate host

Metacercariae

Definitive host

Adult fluke

FLUKES (Trematodes)
fluke anatomy and life cycle
Fluke Anatomy and Life Cycle

Miracidia

Adult Fluke

liver flukes
Fasciola hepatica

Typical life cycle

Snail intermediate host

Humans exposed to metacercaria by eating watercress

Intestine  Liver  Bile Ducts  eggs in feces

Chinese Liver Fluke

Typical life cycle

Snail intermediate host

Humans exposed to metacercaria by eating undercooked fish

Intestine  Liver  Bile ducts eggs in feces

Liver Flukes
flukes of other organs lungs
Flukes of other Organs : Lungs
  • Paragonimus westermani
    • Eggs coughed and swallowed, passed in feces that contaminate water
    • Cercaria in snails
    • Metacercaria in crabs
    • Humans eat crabmeat
    • Adult flukes migrate from GI Blood  Lungs
    • Signs: Coughing

Egg

Adult Fluke

flukes of other organs urine
Flukes of other Organs: Urine
  • Schistostoma
    • Eggs in urine, feces
    • Miracidia in snails
    • Cercaria in snails
    • Penetrate skin
    • Schistosomulae in liver
    • Adults migrate to urinary system
    • Signs: damage to liver, and urinary bladder
flukes
Flukes
  • DX
    • Eggs in feces
  • TX
    • Antihelmenics
  • Prevention
    • Thoroughly cook meats
    • Cook vegetables
life cycle of tapeworms
Life Cycle of Tapeworms
  • Eggs in proglottids passed in stool
  • Larval phase in Intermediate host
  • Intestine  blood  Skeletal muscle and other tissue  cysts
  • Acquire by eating raw meat with cysts
  • Cysts  adult worms in intestines
tapeworm anatomy
Tapeworm Anatomy

Scolex with hooks

Adult Tape worm

Proglottids

taenia tapeworms
Taenia tapeworms
  • Taenia saginata (beef)
  • Taenia solium (pork)
  • Symptoms
    • Abdominal discomfort
  • Diagnosis
    • Worm segments
    • Eggs in stool
  • Treatment
    • Antihelminics
  • Prevention
    • Cook meat
dipylidium canium
Dipylidium canium
  • Dog / cat tapeworm
  • Zoonotic
  • Intermediate host
    • Flea
  • Children
    • Ingest
    • acquire
hydatid disease
Hydatid Disease
  • Echinococcus granulosus
    • Eggs ingested by herbivores
    • Embryos from eggs go to various sites to develop cysts
    • Ingestion of cysts or eggs
    • Humans intermediate host
    • Cyst
      • Damage due to size
      • Anaphylactic shock
tapeworm summary
Tapeworm Summary
  • DX
    • Worm segments
    • Eggs in stool
  • TX
    • Antihelmenthics
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Inspect meat
tapeworms
Tapeworms

Taenia eggs

Ecchinococcus

Diplidium canium

nematodes
NEMATODES
  • “Roundworms”
    • Cyclindrical body
  • Dioecious
  • Cuticle
filariasis
Elephantitis

Wuchereia bancrofti

Mosquito

Lymphatics

Microfilaria in blood

Adults in LN

Blockage

Swelling

Loaisis

Onchocerca volvulus

Biting flies

CT

Microfilaria in blood

Adults in conjunctiva

Inflammation

swelling

FILARIASIS
fliaria summary
Fliaria Summary
  • DX
    • Id microfilaria in blood
  • TX
    • Diethylcarbamazine
  • Prevention
    • Control of intermediate hosts

Wuchereia bancrofti

roundworms
Roundworms
  • Ascaris lumbriocoides
  • Fecal contaminated food
  • Eggs ingested
  • Larvae released and migrate
  • GI  lymph/blood  lung alveoli  coughed  swallowed
  • Adults mature in upper GI (stomach and SI)
roundworms ascarids
Roundworms (Ascarids)
  • Symptoms
    • Asymptomatic
    • Respiratory
    • GI
  • DX
    • Eggs in stool
    • Adults in vomitus
  • TX
  • Prevention
    • Sanitation
    • Cook food
toxocariasis
Toxocariasis
  • Toxacaris canis, T. cati
  • Eggs in environment
  • Fecal  oral
  • Larvae hatch in GI  Blood  Liver  Lung  any tissue
  • aka Visceral Larval Migrans
  • Zoonosis
toxocariasis34
Toxocariasis
  • Symptoms
    • Resp: cough, fever, wheezing
    • Organomegaly
    • Skin: rash
    • Eye: inflammation
  • DX
    • Blood work
    • Biopsy
    • Eggs in stool
  • TX
  • Prevention
    • Hygiene
    • Deworm animals
hookworms
Hookworms
  • Ancylostoma, Necator
  • Eggs in feces hatch
  • Larvae mature in soil and penetrate skin
  • Skin  Lymphatic Blood  Lungs coughed & swallowed
  • Adults develop in SI by attaching mouth parts to lining  blood meals
hookworms37
Hookworms
  • Symptoms
    • Skin rash, pruritic
    • Resp
    • GI: pain
    • Anemia
  • DX
    • Eggs / larvae in stool
  • TX
  • Prevention
    • Limit soil exposure
whipworms
Whipworms
  • Trichuris trichura
  • Eggs in soil, ingestion of contaminated food
  • Larve hatch in SI, migrate to cecum
  • Larvae mature to adult stage
whipworm
Whipworm
  • Symptoms
    • GI: pain, diarrhea, bleeding, anemia, rectal prolapse
  • DX
    • Eggs in stool
    • Colonoscopy to view adults
  • TX : Antihelminthics
  • Prevention
    • Sanitation
    • Wash vegetables
pinworms
Pinworms
  • Enterobiasis vermicularis
  • Eggs @ perineum
  • Fecal-oral
  • Eggs hatch  Lower GI to mature
  • Female moves to perineal region to deposit eggs in sticky substance
  • HUMANS ONLY !!

DX:

GI itching, eggs

Worms in colon

TX: Anthelminthics

Prevetion:

Hygiene

Wash clothing

trichinosis43
Trichinosis
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Larvae in skeletal m.
  • Exposure by eating uncooked meat
  • Cyst  larvaeadult in intestine mature and release larvae
  • Larvae –> migrate using blood/lymph  penetrate muscles to form cysts
trichinosis44
Trichinosis
  • Symptoms
    • Asymptomatic
    • GI: cramps, diarrhea
    • Muscle: stiffness, pain, soreness
    • Skin: rash
    • Eyelid: swelling, pain, injected sclera
  • DX: symptomatic
  • TX
  • Prevention
    • Cook
    • Freeze
strongyloidiasis
Strongyloidiasis
  • Strongyloides stercoralis
  • Eggs hatch in SI mucosal glands
  • Larvae passed in stool
  • Exposure: larvae migrate through skin
  • Skin  Lungs  coughed and swallowed  Intestines
  • Larvae mature to adult stage

Larva

Adult

guinea worm disease
Guinea Worm Disease
  • Drancunculus
  • Larvae in water
  • Crustacean (IH)
  • Humans ingest uncooked meat
  • Larvae released  skin  Adult in blister like lesion
  • Larvae produced and released with water
arthropod parasites
Arthropod Parasites
  • Scabies
    • Sarcoptes scabeii
    • Mite
    • Burrows into skin
      • Lays eggs
      • Intense pruritis
    • Direct contact
    • Zoonosis
    • TX: insecticides
arthropod parasites50
Arthropod Parasites
  • Pediculosis
  • Human Lice
    • Head
    • Body
  • Direct contact
  • Blood meal
  • Eggs (nits) laid at base of hair shaft
  • Pruritis
  • TX: Insecticides

Pediculus humanus

human lice
Human Lice

Nits on hair

Pediculus humanus

“crabs”

antihelminthics
Antihelminthics
  • Praziquantel
  • Albendazole, Mebendazole
  • Diethylcarbamazine
  • Pyrantel pamoate
  • Metronidizole
  • Insecticides
    • Pyrethrin
    • Permethrin