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ASIAN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION. I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND**. ORIGINS: East Asia (Japan, Korea, China) Southeast Asia (Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, Malaysia)

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slide2

I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND**

  • ORIGINS:
  • East Asia (Japan, Korea, China)
  • Southeast Asia (Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, Malaysia)
  • South Asia (Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka)
  • KEY RELIGIONS: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism
between the years 2000 2010
Between the years 2000-2010: **
  • 46% growth in the U.S. Asian population—more than any other racial group
  • Chinese largest, Filipinos second largest
  • Among Asian children and youth, more than 80% are children of immigrants
overall average income level in u s
Overall average income level in U.S.**
  • Is highest for Asians
  • Asian Indians 2011 median income = $92,418
one problem for asians
One problem for Asians…**
  • “model minority”
  • Needs may go unrecognized, unmet
ii contrastng beliefs values and practices
II. CONTRASTNG BELIEFS, VALUES, AND PRACTICES**

TRADITIONAL ASIAN MAINSTREAM

Fatalism Personal control over envt., one’s fate

Tradition, living with Change, future

the past orientation

slide9

TRADITIONAL ASIAN MAINSTREAM**

Group welfare Self actualization,

privacy

Mutual interdependence Independence, indiv. autonomy

Hierarchy, rigid role status Equality, status determined by achievement

Conformity Challenge authority

iii customs courtesies values
III. CUSTOMS, COURTESIES, VALUES**
  • A. Customs and Courtesies
  • Hospitality
  • Modesty, humility
  • Respect for elders, teachers, authority figures
b communication styles
B. Communication Styles**
  • Formal rules of communication propriety based on relative status of interlocutors
  • May be considered appropriate to ask personal questions
  • Indirectness often the norm re: touchy subjects
  • Some Asians may smile or laugh when embarrassed or angry
iv health care and disabilities
IV. HEALTH CARE AND DISABILITIES**

Visible vs. invisible disabilities

Disabilities fate, karma, sins committed by ancestors

Families may be ashamed to bring a child for help if his/her disability represents sins committed by parents/ancestors

as slps
As SLPs…**
  • We may have trouble getting families to acknowledge disabilities and sign IEPs for special education services
  • What can we do when this happens?
v asian education
V. ASIAN EDUCATION**
  • Hugely valued
  • In 2011, 50% of Asians 25 yrs. and older had a Bachelor’s degree or higher compared with 28.5% of all Americans
  • Asian children attend preschool at a higher rate than other groups
in most asian countries there is
In most Asian countries, there is:**
  • Great respect for teachers
  • Heavy reliance on rote learning, memorization
  • Teachers are very authoritarian
  • Class is formal; teachers lecture
  • Teachers don’t admit mistakes
differences asian and american schools stevenson compared beijing chicago
Differences--Asian and American Schools (Stevenson—compared Beijing & Chicago)
abboud kim 2007 cited in text
Abboud & Kim 2007 (cited in text):**
  • Role of Asian children in families: 1) respect elders and obey parents, 2) work hard and do well in school to secure a bright future
  • Many Asian parents work hard all day and morph into educators at night—that is their role
  • Asian parents put academics first, while other parents often put sports/athletics first; kids are too tired to study
vi asian language considerations
VI. ASIAN LANGUAGE CONSIDERATIONS**
  • Introduction

Many languages have numerous dialects

some languages are tonal
Some Languages are Tonal**
  • Khmer, Japanese, Korean not tonal languages
  • Vietnamese, Chinese, Laotian are tonal; each tone represents a meaning change
  • Vietnamese has 6 tones, for example
please know in detail
Please know in detail…
  • The charts on pp.
  • The chart on p. is not on the test 
for example in singapore people speak don t need to memo each lang for exam
For example, in Singapore, people speak: (don’t need to memo each lang. for exam)**
  • Bengali
  • Chinese Malay
  • East Punjabi Sindhi
  • English Teluga
  • Hindi Thai
  • Japanese Korean
  • Java
vii implications for professionals
VII. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFESSIONALS**
  • We may need to address the husband first because the wife is subordinate
  • It may be disgraceful for the family to admit to or discuss a child’s disability; entire family lineage disgraced—intervention may be rejected
  • Some families do not believe that it is important to talk with young children and babies; may not be open to early intervention
slide30
Narrative skills strong predictors of later language outcomes

This study attempted to create some norms for evaluating narrative skills of Cantonese-speaking children

Studied typically-developing subjects and those with specific language impairment (SLI)

To, Stokes, Cheung, & T’sou (June 2010 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research) Narrative assessment for Cantonese-speaking children.**

so we know that
So we know that…**
  • Assessment of children’s narrative skills is very promising  differentiating lang. difference from LI
it is important for us to understand filipinos
It is important for us to understand Filipinos…**

In 2000, there were 24,516 Filipinos in Sacramento County

  • In 2012, this had increased to 41,455 (69% increase)
former students from this class
Former students from this class:
  • Filipinos predominantly Roman Catholic—enlist help of priest, church members
  • Family--huge sacrifices to come to U.S. for a better life for Ch
  • 150 dialects
i have found that asians
I have found that Asians…**
  • Are generally terrific to work with
  • Very appreciative
  • If they understand WHY, they will do carry over