Literal Language • Def. Language meant to be taken seriously and literally • EX. • Life is unpredictable. • The children will not stop moving in their desks. • My alarm clock needs to be set on high in order to wake me up. • My backpack is really heavy.
Figurative Language • Def. Language that communicates meanings beyond the literal meanings of words • Ex. Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole • “Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you are going to get.” • “The children are squirming worms in their desks.” • “My alarm clock has to scream at the top of its lungs to wake me up.” • “My backpack weighs a million pounds today.”
Simile • Def. A comparison using like or as • Ex. Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.
Metaphor • Def. A comparison of two unlike things • Ex. The teachers are angry gorillas.
Personification • Def. Giving human qualities to non-human things, such as animals and objects • Ex. The dog laughed when the mailman ran for safety.
Hyperbole • Def. An extreme exaggeration • EX. Teachers always say they have tons of papers to grade.
Sensory Detail/Imagery • Def. Details that appeal to the five senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. The details create an image in the reader’s mind. • Ex. The plump, hairless, old man baked a most delicious chocolate fudge seven-layer cake.
Point of View • Def. The perspective in which something is written • Ex. First person, Second person, Third person, Third person limited, third person omniscient
First Person • Def. - The writer uses personal pronouns “I, me, mine, my, we, our”; the narrator is also a character in the plot who is telling the story • EX. Autobiographies are written in the first person p.o.v.
Second Person • Def. The writer is aware of the audience. He uses pronouns “you, your, yours” to speak to the audience • Ex. Persuasive pieces usually are written in the second person to convince the reader to do something
Third Person • Def. The writer tells his position while excluding himself from the arguments using third person pronouns: “he, she, they, them, him, her, one, society, people, a person, …” • EX. In formal writing, authors often write in the third person p.o.v.
Third Person Limited • Def. The narrator or author takes an outside look on the story or writing piece. He uses pronouns “he, they, she , them, their, and so on” to tell the story or offer information; he is telling the story from only one of the character’s perspective • Ex. The reader can only see what the narrator sees.
Third Person Omniscient • Def. This is the narrator that knows everything about everyone—even all of their feelings and thoughts • Ex. Known as the Santa Claus or God-like narrator
Tone • Def. The attitude the writer gives his writing • Ex. The tone can be serious, hilarious, sarcastic, angry, sad…
Mood • Def. The atmosphere or feelings created for the reader • Ex. The author can create a romantic, scary, or humorous mood.
Theme • Def.- The message or moral of the story. What does the author want his readers to learn or pay attention to? • Ex. Johnny Got His Gun, 1984, and Anthem, all have the common theme of individual versus society.
Setting • Def. – The time and place a story takes place • Ex. A story can be set in the past, present, or future, and take place anywhere imaginable.
Plot • Def. – A series of events. Plot consists of 5 parts. • Ex. Climax Falling Action Rising Action Resolution Exposition
Exposition • Def. The first part of plot; introduces setting, characters, and conflict. • Ex. Christmas Eve, 14 years old, the boy I like is coming over and my mom is serving Chinese food
Rising Action • Def. – the second part of the plot where a series of events build suspense. • Ex. My relatives are embarrassing me with their lack of manners, and the boy I like is making ugly faces at the food my mother is serving
Climax • Def. The highest point of action in the plot; the turning point • Ex. My dad offers me a piece of the fish’s cheek and I want to die because he calls it my “favorite”
Falling Action • Def. The conflict is resolved in the plot • Ex. My mom gives me a mini skirt I wanted and says I shouldn’t try to be anyone but who I am
Resolution • Def. All loose ends in the plot are resolved; usually, the author will express what should be learned from the experience • Ex. I realize that I shouldn’t be ashamed of my culture
Methods of Characterization • Direct comments by narrator • Physical descriptions • Thoughts, speech, actions • How characters interact
Conflict • Def. The problem or struggle a character or characters face in the plot—they work to resolve the conflict throughout the plot • Ex. A character can be faced with internal and external conflicts
Internal Conflict • Def. A struggle in the character’s mind • Ex. Suicide, depression, guilt, a difficult choice/decision the character must make…
External Conflict • Def. A problem a character has with an outside force: another character, natural disaster, or society • Ex. A character is being bullied, suffers a hurricane, or is on trial for a crime he did not commit
Flashback • Def. The plot goes back in time • EX. The movie, The Notebook, is set in the present time, but often goes back to the past when the two main characters met and fell in love as adolescents.
Flash Forward • Def. The plot jumps into the future • EX. In the movie, The Sandlot, the storyline jumps to future at the end of the plot to find adult Smalls is a sports announcer and adult Benny “The Jet” Rodriguez plays for the Dodgers.
Infer/Inference • Def. a logical guess based on clues • Ex. You can infer that the narrator does not think blondes are intelligent if she says, “All blondes have an IQ of a peanut.”
Purpose (PIE) • Def. Why did the author write what he wrote? • Ex. • Persuade • Inform/Explain • Entertain • There are other purposes for writing, but these are the most popular
Audience • Def. Who the author intends to read their writing • EX. If a little kid is writing a Dear Santa letter, that child intends for Santa to be the audience. • EX. If a politician writes a speech about changing a law, the intended audience are citizens that are old enough to vote
Autobiographical Narrative • Def. An essay written about oneself by oneself; it follows the five parts of plot and other literary elements • Ex. • An essay about an embarrassing moment • An essay about your scariest experience
Biographical Narrative • Def. An essay written about someone else; it contains the five parts of plot and other literary elements • Ex. • You write about your hero • You write about a person who has had a negative effect on your life
Persuasive Essay • Def. An essay in which the author tries to persuade his audience • Ex. • A student tries to convince school officials to ban uniforms • A local government tries to convince citizens to recycle
Response to Literatureor Literary Analysis Essay • Def. An essay that analyzes literature: a poem, song, play, story, novel, article, and so on • Ex. • An essay analyzing 1984’s main theme • An essay comparing the symbols between two poems
Expository Essay • Def. An open ended essay; the prompt usually allows the writer a choice; 5 paragraph essay structure • EX. For instance, you can have your choice of historical events, historical people, rules, characteristics, qualities, and so on, to write about
Business Letter • Def. A formal letter that follows strict formatting guidelines such as 12 font, single space, left alignment, a skipped line between major parts of letter • EX. You could be asked to write a letter to your principal, the president, your local newspaper, and so on…
Thesis • Def. A statement that has the writer’s opinion. It is located in the introduction (usually the last sentence of this paragraph) and the entire essay supports it. • Ex. High school students should wear uniforms to school as it promotes education, offers a safe environment to learn, and builds a sense of community.
Topic Sentence • Def. Is the first sentence in a body paragraph. It contains an opinion that supports the thesis statement • Ex. Uniforms benefit schools as they create a sense of community.
Commas and FANBOYS • Combine sentences with a comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) • EX. I like to play all sports, but I don’t like watching them all on T.V.
Semi-colon • Def. Combines two sentences that are related to each other • Ex. I love The Beatles; their music is amazingly great. • Homework sucks; however, I know it helps me learn new concepts. • He is mean; he yells at everyone.
Colon • Def. There are several uses for a colon, the post popular use is when introducing a list of items • EX. This year I am taking five AP classes: AP Spanish Literature, AP English Language, AP US History, AP Psychology, and AP Chemistry.
Dash • Def. is used to create a pause that interrupts a thought • EX. I woke up late and got ready as fast as I could—I can’t believe I didn’t realize it was Saturday!
Hyphenated Modifier • Combines words to create an adjective • Ex. He gave me the I’m-going-to-kill-you look. • She walked around with the I’m-so-beautiful-and-I-know-it look on her face.
Dialogue Punctuation • Def. A line of dialogue needs a speaker tag, a comma separating the speaker tag and dialogue, quotations marks before and after dialogue, the first letter in dialogue needs to be capitalized, and end marks go inside the end quotation marks • EX. Danica screamed across the crowded room, “I love you!” • “I love you too!” her boyfriend yelled back.
MLA Rules • 12 Font Times New Roman • 1” Margins (Top, Bottom, Right, Left) • Double Space • Header: Last Name and Page #: Upper Right Hand Corner of Page • Smith 1 • Heading: Upper Left Hand Corner of Page • John Smith Ms. Jones English 2 12 October 2009
Implicit Metaphor • Def. the full subject is not explained, but is implied from the context of the sentence. • Ex. "Shut your trap!" It is implied that the trap is the person’s mouth.