4-1 Notes: China Reunites. China is Reunited. The Han dynasty ended in 220 A.C.E. – China broke into 17 kingdoms – Warlords fought with each other for control China lost control of Korea 581 A.C.E. – General Wendi declared himself emperor after reuniting China by force
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China is Reunited • The Han dynasty ended in 220 A.C.E. – China broke into 17 kingdoms – Warlords fought with each other for control • China lost control of Korea • 581 A.C.E. – General Wendi declared himself emperor after reuniting China by force • New dynasty was called the Sui (581-618 A.C.E.) • When Wendi died, his son Yangdi took the throne • Yangdi failed to take Korea back by force • Yangdi angered farmers by forcing them to rebuild the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, pay high taxes – Farmers revolted, Yangdi killed
The Grand Canal • Yangdi ordered that the Grand Canal be built to connect the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) and the Huang He Rivers (Yellow River) • The Grand Canal united two of China’s busiest rivers, which helps people ship goods between northern and southern China • World’s largest artificial waterway
Tang & Song Dynasties • 618 A.C.E. – One of Yangdi’s generals took over, declared himself emperor, and set up the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 A.C.E.) • Taizong, most powerful Tang emperor, reinstituted the civil service exams so government officials would be hired based on skill, not family connections • Tang dynasty expanded but lost control of the Silk Road to Turks and declined • Song dynasty ruled from 960 – 1279 A.C.E. • Song dynasty moved their capital farther south to Hangzhou
Buddhism in China • Buddhism is an Indian religion that teaches people to use meditation and prayer to free oneself dependence on things (thus freeing you from worry and pain) • Buddhism was brought to China in 150 A.C.E., a time of great violence and suffering • Buddhism attracted many Chinese looking to escape suffering • Buddhism was at first supported by the Tang – Many Chinese became monks and nuns who lived in monasteries • Many Chinese did not like Buddhism because they accepted donations and did not allow their monks or nuns to marry, weakening respect for family life • 845 A.C.E. – Tang officials who feared Buddhism’s growing power ordered that many Buddhist temples and monasteries be destroyed, forever weakening Buddhism in China
Neo-Confucianism • Confucius believed that good government needed wise rulers who benefitted their subjects, just like a family (“familial piety”) • Confucianism became unpopular in China after the fall of the Han dynasty and the disappearance of civil service exams • Both the Tang and Song dynasties supported a new type of Confucianism (“Neo-Confucianism” to reduce Buddhism’s popularity • Neo-Confucianism taught that this life was just as important as the afterlife, which encouraged others to do good • Also taught that people could find peace of mind and harmony by following Confucius