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Notes- Imperial China

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  1. Notes- Imperial China KC 3.2.I. Continuity and Innovation of State Forms

  2. Rise of Imperial China • Centralized imperial rule will return to China during the 6th century under the Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties. • During this time period: - Rapid economic development - Spread of Buddhism - Chinese culture spreads to Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and central Asia

  3. The Sui Dynasty • Reunification by Yang Jian in 589 • Yang Jian unified China much like Shi Huangdi 800 years prior • The Sui will: a. Construct palaces and granaries b. repair the Great Wall c. Have high taxes and compulsory (forced) labor services

  4. The Sui dynasty • Built the Grand Canal which was a waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers • Nearly 2,000 kilometers(1,240 miles) long and connected northern & southern China • Rice & other food products could be transported north

  5. The fall of the Sui Assassination of Emperor Sui Yangdi

  6. The Tang Dynasty • Era of stability and prosperity under Emperor Tang Taizong • Extensive network of transportation and communication • System based on roads, horses, and human runners • Equal Field System: • land redistribution policy, allotted land according to needs; purpose was equitable distribution over concentration to avoid social problems

  7. The Tang Dynasty • Bureaucracy of merit through civil service exams (Confucian influence) • Foreign Relations a. China is the Middle Kingdom and center of civilization b. Tributary system became diplomatic policy: subordinate lands had to bring gifts and perform a submission ritual prostration before the emperor.

  8. The Tang decline • Casual & careless leadership • Rebellion of An Lushan and large scale peasant rebellions • The Uighars (Chinese Muslims) become the de facto rulers • The equal field system deteriorated

  9. The Song Dynasty • Song Taizu is the founder • Weaknesses: 1. Financial problems 2. Very little military education 3. External Pressures: semi-nomadic Khitan and nomadic Jurchen both from Manchuria (Northern China)

  10. Economic Development of Tang and Song • Fast- ripening rice increased food supplies • New agricultural techniques increase population • Iron plows, harnessed oxen (north), harnessed water buffaloes (south), enriched soil with manure, use of dikes, dams, canals, animal & human-powered pumps & waterwheels • Urbanization and commercialized agriculture

  11. Economic Development of Tang and Song • Porcelain diffused rapidly • Advanced metallurgy technology iron & steel tools & weapons • Gunpowder is used and diffused throughout Eurasia • Printing is developed from wood block to movable type • Magnetic compasses with a south- pointing needle are developed (naval technology)

  12. Economic Development of Tang and Song • A market economy emerges with the increase of merchants • Credit and paper money develop • China’s economic surge is fueled by economic growth

  13. Cultural Change during the Song and Tang Neo-Confucianism Zen Buddhism Focuses on the idea that human nature is moral, rational and essentially good Emphasized the spiritual side of Confucianism Asserted that mental discipline could achieve salvation Focuses on meditation Derived from India and Tibet