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Grade 9 SOCIAL STUDIES. UNIT 2: CHAPTER 3. Canada’s People. In this chapter we will study why people live where they do, and how many people live there. We will also investigate population patterns in various cities and rural areas. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION.

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1. Grade 9 SOCIAL STUDIES UNIT 2: CHAPTER 3

2. Canada’s People • In this chapter we will study why people live where they do, and how many people live there. We will also investigate population patterns in various cities and rural areas.

3. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION • Population distribution: describes where people have chosen to live in a particular country. • Some people decide to live: • near the ocean • in an agricultural area • in a forested area

4. Some geographers refer to Canada’s population distribution as an archipelago effect. • An archipelago is a group of islands. • This analogy refers to Canada’s pockets of settlement as islands, not in an ocean of water, but rather in seas of forest, rock, muskeg, prairie, tundra and mountains.

5. POPULATION DENSITY • Population Density: is a tool used by geographers to analyze how closely together people live in a particular country or area. • Population density is defined as the average number of people occupying an area. • It can be used to compare the populations of different countries. But a direct comparison can be misleading.

6. Equation to Calculate Population Density: The equation gives us the number of people per square kilometre (km2)

7. Comparing Population Density of Different Countries • Canada’s Population density is approximately 3.1 people/km2(based on a population of 31 million.) • The Netherlands, with a population of 16.5 million has a population density of ›400 people/km2 • It appears that Canada has a small population BUT we must remember that large sections of Canada are uninhabited or have very few people

8. Study figure 3.3 on page 44 of your text. Where are the major pockets of population in Canada located?

9. SITE AND SITUATION • When studying the location and growth of towns and cities, geographers divide factors that determine the location of human settlements into two main categories: • Site factors • Situation factors

10. Site Factors • Site factors are features of the physical landscape that attract people to a particular area. • Examples: • fertile soil • abundant trees • plentiful fish • presence of minerals, that attract people to a particular area

11. Situation Factors • Situation factors involve a site’s relationship to other places. • Sometimes the relationship is economic, related to trade, markets, or transportation. • At other times, the relationship is political - for example, a site may become the regional capital or administrative centre

12. A particular location is settled due to SITE FACTORS. Whether these sites grow into towns and cities over time depends on SITUATION FACTORS.

13. Aboriginal Peoples

14. Inuit • Aboriginal people of Arctic Canada. • The word “Inuit” means “the people” in Inuktitut • Location: • Nunavut • Northwest Territories • parts of Labrador and Quebec • lived along the coast and were focused primarily on harvesting the resources of the sea.

15. Metis • First Nations and European ancestry. • Metis in Canada live primarily on the Prairies, and in Ontario and the Northwest Territories. • Generally lived off the land, hunting and trapping.

16. FIRST NATIONS • Whenever possible the specific First Nation name should be used. (example: Innu) • The term “Indian” may have come from Columbus who mistakenly thought he landed in India. • The only time “Indian “should be used is when quoting directly from a source that uses the work or when referring to government documents or legislation such as the Indian Act.

17. Innu: • Interior eastern portion of Quebec, north through Labrador • depended on the vast caribou herds of the Labrador Peninsula and maintaining an extensive trading network with other First Nations • Mi’kmaq • Lived on the Gaspe peninsula, in PEI and Nova Scotia, the Northern and eastern coasts of New Brunswick

18. Settlement Patterns • Most of Canada’s population patterns are a result of the interaction of history and culture with the physical landscape. • The Aboriginal Peoples lived in various areas of Canada and all for very specific reasons.

19. Settlement Pattern 1:Relocation • European settlers wanted to settle in land that was occupied by Aboriginals. • The European settlers were attracted by site and situation factors to the same areas that had attracted the First Nations before them.

20. Long term contact between First Nation and Europeans almost always led to the relocation of the First Nations. • First Nations were displaced from the most favourable lands by European settlers. • Many First Nations were forced onto lands set aside by the government for their use, which were often located in areas with few economic resources.

21. Atlantic Canada • The Europeans who settled in Atlantic Canada farmed in the fertile areas, like the Annapolis region of Nova Scotia. • However, because there were relatively few areas suited for farming many settlers turned to the sea to make a living. • This led to the creation of coastal communities.

22. Settlement Pattern 2:Seigneurial System • New France • Settlers there wanted to be close to rivers for transportation • The seigneurial system of landholding used in France led to a settlement pattern of long, narrow lots facing rivers.

23. Settlement Pattern 3:Township System • In Ontario, river transport was less important. • Since the British were familiar with the township system of settlement, they chose to use it here. • The township system consisted of square blocks of land of approximately 100 acres each.

24. Settlement Pattern 4:Sections • On the Prairies, the land was divided into a grid pattern like Ontario’s. • Instead of townships, however, land was divided into sections of 640 acres (roughly 2.6 km2), and then subdivided into quarter sections.

25. Growth and Decline of Settlements • Growth • At the time of Confederation in 1867, Canada was primarily an agricultural country.   • In the 1800's, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands was the largest agricultural area in Canada because of its fertile soil and favourable climate.

26. In Atlantic Canada, the land was not suited for large agricultural development so people settled by the ocean. • The development of fishing, lumbering, and shipbuilding industries promoted the growth of many port cities like St. John’s, Halifax and Saint John and many smaller coastal communities.

27. The west coast promoted the development of fishing and lumbering as major industries. • Farming was confined to pockets of fertile land in valleys and river deltas. • Vancouver, situated on a large delta, became the major port on the west coast and eventually grew into Canada’s third largest city.

28. Most of Canada’s large cities, such as Montreal, Toronto, and Hamilton developed because of site and situation factors. • Early settlements provided services to the farmers, such as markets to sell their products. • Transportation systems encouraged greater agricultural growth. • As farmers grew more prosperous, towns grew into cities that were able to supply them with consumer goods and manufactured products.

29. Classifying Communities • Today, Canada’s communities can be classified, or grouped, in a variety of ways that reflect their growth and decline over the years. • One way to classify communities is on the basis of the services they provide.

30. Villages provide limited services. • Cities provide a high level of service and a more specialized service to a very large population base. • Sometimes corridors spread out from major cities. When the corridor from one city meets the corridor of another city it creates a long urban development.

31. Decline • In the 1881 census, approximately three out of four Canadianslived in rural settlements. • Rural Areas are those areas that are located outside towns and cities.At this time most Canadians made their living in a primary industry such as agriculture, forestry, fishing, or mining.

32. Over the next several decades Canada underwent an INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. Market towns and cities became industrial as well as service centres. The development of railways, coal, and steel assisted this change. • As a result of changing economic conditions, more and more people moved to urban areas, where the new jobs were.

33. Urban Areas are towns, cities with a population of 1000 or more, or an area with a population density of 400 people per square kilometre. • This movement from rural area to cities is known as rural to urban drift.

34. By the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, a little more than half of Canada’s population lived in urban areas. • Since WWII, the rate of urbanization has increased resulting in: • Abandoned farms in agricultural regions • Fishing and mining towns have become “ghost towns” abandoned once the resources were gone.

35. It is sometimes a challenge for rural communities to keep services when many of the people begin to move to larger towns and cities. • It is often difficult to keep services such as schools and hospitals open when the population declines. • Without these services, even more people move away from villages and towns.

36. Regional Identities • Geographers separate countries into regions . • Characteristics of regions: • Location • Physical and cultural characteristics • Political perspective • Hierarchy

37. Location: • Communities within a region share a geographic location. • The geographic location is often expressed in the regional name (Atlantic Canada)

38. Physical and Cultural Characteristics • Regions share physical landscapes and similar cultures.

39. Political Perspective • Geographic and political boundaries are not the same. • There are often similarities between places in different countries. • For example: Atlantic Canada and New England (USA) share a common geography and culture BUT are separate due to the Canada-U.S.A. border

40. Hierarchy • Regions often contain smaller regions within them. • Tourism departments use these smaller regions to promote tourism to different parts of a province. • Newfoundland and Labrador can be divided into many smaller regions such as the Avalon and Labrador.

41. Canada’s Regions • Canada can be separated into five main regions: • Atlantic Canada • Central Canada • The Prairies • British Columbia • The North

42. Group Activity • As a group, you will be preparing a poster about one of Canada’s regions. • Your poster must include: • Map of Canada with the region highlighted • Approximate population • List of the major cities • Any information about your region found on page 54 of your SS textbook • Any information on your region found on pages 36-55 (example: Climate)

43. The Core and the Periphery

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