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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 . Biochemistry. Compounds Important to Life. Inorganic lack carbon Come from non-living things. Organic contain carbon form living things. Protein. Lipids. CaPO 4. NaCl. CO 2. Carbohydrates. Nucleic Acids. H 2 O. Water. Polar Molecule = uneven charge. Water.

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Chapter 3

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  1. Chapter 3 Biochemistry

  2. Compounds Important to Life Inorganic • lack carbon • Come from non-living things Organic • contain carbon • form living things Protein Lipids CaPO4 NaCl CO2 Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids H2O

  3. Water

  4. Polar Molecule = uneven charge Water Good Solvent = dissolves polar molecules Adhesion = attraction between different substances Cohesion = attraction between same substances Capillarity= Spreads/moves upwards

  5. Carbohydrates

  6. Cont…Carbohydrates Carbon Variety of organic compounds 6P Four electrons (e-) in the outer shell Forms strong covalent bonds -C-C-C-C-C-C-C- Other Compounds Polymer = repeating linked units Itself

  7. Subunits are monosaccharides Major Energy Source Monosaccharide Carbohydrates Disaccharide C,H,O Polysaccharide Always (1:2:1) Form covalent bonds

  8. Made during Photosynthesis Glucose Broken Down During Cell Respiration 1 Monosaccharide Fructose Sweetest Sugar Simple Sugar Galactose Milk

  9. Sugar cane Beets Sucrose = Fructose + Glucose 2 Di saccharide Mono + Mono Lactose Galactose + Glucose = Double Sugars Milk, Milk Products

  10. Many Poly saccharide 3 or more Mono + Mono + Mono Glycogen “Animal Starch” = Glucose Storage molecule for plants Starch Cellulose glu glu glu

  11. Proteins

  12. Function Complex polymers made of elements C, H, O, N • Transport oxygen • Provide immunity • Form muscle, skin, hair, and nails • Many chemicals needed for life

  13. Amino Acids • Building blocks of proteins • 20 Amino Acids; vary in shape and size • Linked by dehydration synthesis reaction (rxn) • Form special covalent bond between amino acid • Peptide bond O=C-----N-H

  14. Structure NH2 Amine group H-C----R Varies for each a.a. HO – C = O Carboxyl group (-COOH) Each amino acid is a monomer, linked together to form polymer

  15. 1. Special proteins that speed up chemical rxns • 2. Involved in all life processes; digestion, energy storage and release, making molecules

  16. Enzymes • Special proteins that speed up chemical rxns • Involved in all life processes; digestion, energy storage and release, making molecules Substrate Reactant Product Enzyme – Substrate Complex Enzyme Enzyme

  17. Enzymes • Enzyme binds to substrate and weakens bonds; product released; enzyme not altered • Substrate = substance enzyme acts on • Active site = region where enzyme binds • “Lock and Key” Model = one specific enzyme for one rxn

  18. Lipids Fats, Waxes, & Oils ↑ C, ↑ H, ↓ O

  19. Functions • Store E • Conserve Heat • Protect Vital Organs • Chemical Messengers • Cell Membranes

  20. Fatty Acids – Building blocks of lipids • Long Chains of C and H (4-24) • One end contains Carboxyl Group (-COOH) • Other end • Hydrophilic = “water- loving” Hydrophobic= “water-fearing” H O = H – C – C – C –C – C – C – C – C – C –C OH H

  21. Fatty Acids cont. (Building Blocks) • Saturated = single bonds; solid RT*; meat, dairy • Cholesterol; clog arteries heart attack • -C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C- • (SSSS)

  22. Building Blocks (cont.) • Unsaturated = double bonds; liquid RT*; vegetable oils • Cholesterol • -C-C=C-C-C=C-C-C

  23. Glycerol = Other Building Block • Organic alcohol; 3C and 3 OH • 2 or 3 Fatty Acids attached

  24. Four Types • Triglycerides 3 fatty acids + glycerol; (plant oil + animal fat) • Phospholipids 2 fatty acids + polar and nonpolar ends (cell membranes)

  25. Four Types • Waxes long chain fatty acid + glycerol; hydrophobic; protective barrier for plants and animals • Steroids 4 Carbon rings; no fatty acids; hormones, (nerve tissue, toad venom, plant poison;(cholesterol)

  26. Nucleic Acids = organic compounds that contain C, H, O, N, Phosphorous = covalently linked nucleotides

  27. Nucleotide – 3 Parts(Sugar, Phosphate Group, Nitrogen Base)

  28. Nucleotide:3 parts Monomer Monomer Monomer Phosphate Group Nitrogen Base Monomer + Monomer + Monomer 5 Carbon Sugar = Polymer

  29. Two Kinds of Nucleic Acids RNA = ribonucleic acid Stores info to make proteins DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid Controls heredity Stores info for cell activities

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