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Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green

Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green

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Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green

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  1. ST STAN BAKER Pioneering Mars:Turning the Red Planet Green Photobiology of Cyanobacteria Scott P. Milroy, Ph.D. USM Department of Marine Science 5-7 November 2012

  2. Pioneering Mars The Basic Chemistry of Photosynthesis • Organisms which can make their own food are called “autotrophs” or “producers” – these undergo photosynthesis (and respiration). • The energy needed for this reaction is harvested from light, absorbed by special photopigments (chief among them is chlorophyll-a)

  3. Pioneering Mars The Basic Chemistry of Respiration • Organisms which must ingest their food are called “heterotrophs” or “consumers” – these undergo cellular respiration only. • Organisms which can make their own food are called “autotrophs” or “producers” – these undergo photosynthesis (and respiration). • The energy produced from this reaction is stored as ATP, which is the universal energy molecule used to fuel ALL cellular processes (metabolism & LIFE)! • The energy needed for this reaction is harvested from light, absorbed by special photopigments (chief among them is chlorophyll-a) +ATP

  4. Pioneering Mars The Basic Chemistry of Life • Organisms which must ingest their food are called “heterotrophs” or “consumers” – these undergo cellular respiration only. • The energy produced from this reaction is stored as ATP, which is the universal energy molecule used to fuel ALL cellular processes (metabolism & LIFE)! COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  5. Pioneering Mars Elements of Sugar: C, H, O • Sugars (also known as “carbohydrates”) can only be made naturally from photosynthesis and only require C, H, O (from CO2 & H2O) • Sugars can be stored as an energy reserve, or they can be used in cellular respiration to make ATP • ATP can then be used to power other cellular processes, to make other necessary molecules (like lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids)… COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  6. Pioneering Mars Elements of Lipid: C, H, O • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) can be made within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  7. Pioneering Mars Elements of Protein: C, H, O, N • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) can be made within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) can be made within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) • Proteins can be made by linking amino acids together within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) and N (from NO3-, NH4+, and sometimes N2) COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  8. Pioneering Mars Elements of Nucleic Acid: C, H, O, N, P • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) can be made within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) • Proteins can be made by linking amino acids together within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) and N (from NO3-, NH4+, and sometimes N2) • Proteins can be made by linking amino acids together within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) and N (from NO3-, NH4+, and sometimes N2) • Nucleic Acids are linked together to make genetic material (RNA & DNA) using ATP for energy and C, H, O, Nand P(from PO43-) COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  9. Pioneering Mars The Chemical Stockroom for Life • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) can be made within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) • Proteins can be made by linking amino acids together within the cell using ATP for energy and C, H, O (from respired sugars) and N (from NO3-, NH4+, and sometimes N2) ? ! • Nucleic Acids are linked together to make genetic material (RNA & DNA) using ATP for energy and C, H, O, Nand P(from PO43-) COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  10. Pioneering Mars The Chemical Stockroom for Life ? ! COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  11. Pioneering Mars The Chemical Stockroom for Life ? COMPLIMENTARY +ATP

  12. Pioneering Mars The Guts of Photosynthesis

  13. Pioneering Mars Cyanobacteria Photopigments

  14. Pioneering Mars Cyanobacteria Production ?