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CHAPTER 14. BECOMING A WORLD POWER (1872 - 1917). WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?. 14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION. Economic competition from foreign nations Military competition from foreign nations Feeling of superiority. WHAT WAS CHANGING IN THE LATE 1880S?.

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chapter 14

CHAPTER 14

BECOMING A WORLD POWER

(1872 - 1917)

14 1 the imperialist vision
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION
  • Economic competition from foreign nations
  • Military competition from foreign nations
  • Feeling of superiority

WHAT WAS CHANGING IN THE LATE 1880S?

14 1 the imperialist vision a desire for new markets
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(A DESIRE FOR NEW MARKETS)

Imperialism refers to the _______________ and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones. Europeans were looking overseas for raw materials, new markets to sell their goods, and for places to invest their ________ .

To protect their investments European nations began exerting their ________________ over those areas. Some areas became colonies while many others became ________________. The U.S. noticed this European expansion and many started pushing for American ________________.

14 1 the imperialist vision a desire for new markets1
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(A DESIRE FOR NEW MARKETS)

Imperialism refers to the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones. Europeans were looking overseas for raw materials, new markets to sell their goods, and for places to invest their capital.

To protect their investments European nations began exerting their control over those areas. Some areas became colonies while many others became protectorates. The U.S. noticed this European expansion and many started pushing for American imperialism.

14 1 the imperialist vision a feeling of superiority
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(A FEELING OF SUPERIORITY)

Many Social Darwinists argued that nations competed with each other politically, economically, and _______________, and that only the strongest would survive. This justified American ___________ abroad. John ________ argued that English speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of ______________; an idea known as Anglo - _______________. Many Americans linked this idea with that of __________________ Destiny. Another influential Anglo-Saxonist was the American minister named Josiah ____________.

14 1 the imperialist vision a feeling of superiority1
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(A FEELING OF SUPERIORITY)

Many Social Darwinists argued that nations competed with each other politically, economically, and militarily, and that only the strongest would survive. This justified American influence abroad. John Fiske argued that English speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government; an idea known as Anglo - Saxonism. Many Americans linked this idea with that of Manifest Destiny. Another influential Anglo-Saxonist was the American minister named Josiah Strong.

14 1 the imperialist vision building a modern navy
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(BUILDING A MODERN NAVY)

In 1888 the U.S. risked war to prevent Germany from taking control of __________ in the South Pacific. In 1891 the U.S. threatened to go to war if ____________ did not pay reparations after a mob of Chileans attacked American __________. In 1895 the U.S. supported Venezuela against Great Britain over a dispute regarding British Guiana.

As American interests and involvement overseas increased, so did the need for a large, modern navy. This belief was best exemplified in writings of Captain Alfred T. ____________, in which he laid out the benefits of a large navy. By the late 1890s, Congress was convinced of the need to _____________ a large, modern navy.

14 1 the imperialist vision building a modern navy1
14.1 – THE IMPERIALIST VISION(BUILDING A MODERN NAVY)

In 1888 the U.S. risked war to prevent Germany from taking control of Samoa in the South Pacific. In 1891 the U.S. threatened to go to war if Chile did not pay reparations after a mob of Chileans attacked American sailors. In 1895 the U.S. supported Venezuela against Great Britain over a dispute regarding British Guiana.

As American interests and involvement overseas increased, so did the need for a large, modern navy. This belief was best exemplified in writings of Captain Alfred T. Mahan, in which he laid out the benefits of a large navy. By the late 1890s, Congress was convinced of the need to build a large, modern navy.

14 2 spanish american war
14.2 – SPANISH AMERICAN WAR

See pictorial timeline for details of the war

debate over annexation
DEBATE OVER ANNEXATION
  • As a result of the war the U.S. had “acquired” Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines?
  • Big question – what to the Philippines
    • Annex? Give independence?
to annex or not to annex the philippines
TO ANNEX OR NOT TO ANNEX THE PHILIPPINES

SUPPORTERS OF ANNEXATION

OPPONENTS OF ANNEXATION

Cost outweighs economic benefit

Cheap Filipino labor would drive down American wages

Goes against American principles

  • Military benefit
    • U.S. naval base in the Pacific
  • Economic benefit
    • Large market for American goods
  • Social/Moral obligation
    • Help the “less civilized”
treaty of paris
TREATY OF PARIS
  • December 1898 – signed between Spain and U.S.
    • Cuba is independent
    • U.S. acquires Guam and Puerto Rico
    • U.S. pays Spain $20 million for Philippines (McKinley had decided to annex the Philippines)
cuba platt ammendment
CUBA - PLATT AMMENDMENT
  • Cuba could not make a treaty w/ another country that would weaken its independence

2. Cuba had to allow the U.S. to buy/lease naval bases in Cuba

3. Cuba’s debts had to be kept low (why?)

4. The U.S. had the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence

governing puerto rico
GOVERNING PUERTO RICO
  • Foraker Act (1900)
    • PRs elect their legislature
    • Governor appointed by U.S. president
    • PRs are not U.S. citizens
  • 1917 – PRs granted U.S. citizenship
  • 1930s – elect their own governor
rebellion in the philippines
REBELLION IN THE PHILIPPINES
  • Philippine-American War breaks out and thousands die in the conflict
  • U.S. used some tactics the Spanish used in Cuba
  • 1902 – war is declared over (U.S. “won “)
  • 1946 – U.S. grants independence
14 3 new american diplomacy
14.3 NEW AMERICAN DIPLOMACY
  • OPEN DOOR POLICY
    • China was weakening in the late 1800s
    • Nations established “spheres of influence” in China (this worried the U.S.)
    • McKinley & Hay construct the ODP – nations with spheres of influence would not discriminate against other nations wanting to do business with them in those spheres
    • The point was to ensure/protect economic opportunities for the U.S. in China
boxer rebellion
BOXER REBELLION
  • Some Chinese were angry w/ too much Western influence
  • They took this out on foreigners by killing them and/or taking them prisoner
  • Hay asked foreign nations affected not to partition China into colonies
    • They agreed to accept compensation from China
    • Allowed U.S. to maintain “open” access to the Chinese market
roosevelt s diplomacy
ROOSEVELT’S DIPLOMACY
  • McKinley won the election of 1900 but was assassinated in 1901
    • TR became president
    • sought to increase American power on a global scale (economically, politically….)
    • U.S. had a duty to help “less civilized”
roosevelt s diplomacy east asia
ROOSEVELT’S DIPLOMACY: EAST ASIA
  • TR supported the Open Door policy in China
  • Received Nobel Peace prize for negotiating an end to the Russo-Japanese War (1906)

(See graphic organizer for:

Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary, and Dollar Diplomacy)

woodrow wilson
WOODROW WILSON
  • Wanted to focus on domestic policy
  • opposed imperialism, wanted to promote democracy
    • can you do both?
mexican revolution
MEXICAN REVOLUTION
  • 1911 – revolution erupts, led by Francisco Madero
  • 1913 – new gov’t set up by General Victoriano Huerta after Madero was killed
    • By order of Huerta?

Huerta

wilson mexico
WILSON & MEXICO
  • WW despised Huerta, refused to “recognize” the new gov’t
  • WW’s new policy – no American recognition for those who seize power unjustly
  • WW sends ships to intercept arms shipments to Huerta’s gov’t
  • WW orders the shelling of Veracruz and seizure of the city
  • New gov’t is installed but tension still exists
mexican revolution1
MEXICAN REVOLUTION
  • 1916 – forces led by Pancho Villa carry out attacks, kill 16 Americans
  • WW sends in 6,000 under John Pershing, recalled in 1917 (failure or success?)
  • WW’s actions in Mexico damage U.S. image/foreign relations; seen as an imperialist by many
  • Wilson carries out other imperialist actions
    • Naval bases in Nicaragua (1914)
    • Sends Marines into Haiti (1915)
    • Sends troops into the Dominican Republic (1916)

Pancho Villa