The birth of political parties
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“The Birth Of Political Parties”. Chapter 10 Section 3. The Birth of Political Parties. -The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties. - Political parties -organized groups of people with similar ideas about government

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The birth of political parties1
The Birth of Political Parties

-The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties.

-Political parties-organized groups of people

with similar ideas about government

-By the early 1790’s, two political parties were fighting for control of the nation’s government. They were called the Republicans and Federalists.

Federalists republicans
Federalists Republicans

  • Leaders-

  • Alexander Hamilton

  • John Adams

  • Regions of Support-

  • Strongest in northern towns and coastal south

  • Leaders-

  • Thomas Jefferson

  • James Madison

  • Regions of Support-

  • Strongest in northern farming areas and southern and western backcountry



Federalists republicans1
Federalists Republicans

  • Beliefs-

  • rule by wealthy & educated people

  • Strong national gov’t

  • Loose construction

  • Limit states’ rights

  • Laws to help business

  • High tariffs

  • Powerful national bank

  • Pro-British

  • Beliefs-

  • Rule by common people

  • Weak national gov’t

  • Strict construction

  • Protect states’ rights

  • Laws to help farmers

  • Low tariffs

  • No national bank

  • Pro-French



Election of 1796
Election of 1796

  • In the election of 1796, Adams won the presidency by three electoral votes. Jefferson came in second, which made him Vice-President. The nation was in a difficult situation. Its two top leaders belonged to different political parties.



John adams 2 nd potus
John Adams- 2nd POTUS

Problems overseas
Problems Overseas

  • As the war between France and Britain ensued, Adams found it hard to continue a policy of neutrality.

  • After French attacks on American ships, Adams sent diplomats to France.

  • In the “XYZ Affair”, the French demanded bribes. Americans responded with a half-war with France.

  • A “half- war” is an undeclared war.

Alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Republicans harshly criticized the Federalists. In response, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien Acts gave the President power to jail or deport aliens if they were troublesome and suspected to be spies. The Sedition Act banned the writing or speech that stirred up hatred against Congress or the President.

  • Aliens-foreigners who are not yet citizens

  • Sedition-actions that may cause people to rebel against government

Fear of tyranny
Fear of Tyranny

  • Republicans feared tyranny by the federal government due to the Federalists passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson and Madison turned to States to protect people’s freedoms.

  • The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions charged that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Kentucky Resolution also argued that states have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law.

Election of 1800
Election of 1800

  • The election laws of 1800 resulted in a tie between Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. It was up to the House of Representatives to decide.

  • The Federalists wanted to embarrass Jefferson, so the Federalists voted for Burr. For 6 days and 35 ballots the tie continued. Finally , Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by throwing his support to Jefferson. Hamilton said of the two candidates, Jefferson was “not so dangerous a man”.

Results of election of 1800
Results of Election of 1800

  • Thomas Jefferson –Republican -3rd President

  • Aaron Burr-Republican-Vice President

  • In 1804, the 12th amendment was added to the Constitution to prevent a presidential tie again. Electors now vote separately for President and V.P.

  • On July 11, 1804 Aaron Burr(V.P.) and Alexander Hamilton(former sec. of Treasury) duel in Weehawken, N.J. Hamilton was fatally injured in the duel by a shot from Burr’s pistol. Hamilton died the next day.

Alexander h amilton
Alexander Hamilton