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“The Birth Of Political Parties”. Chapter 10 Section 3. The Birth of Political Parties. The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties. Political parties -organized groups of people with similar ideas about government

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the birth of political parties1
The Birth of Political Parties
  • The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties.
  • Political parties-organized groups of people

with similar ideas about government

  • By the early 1790’s- two parties had formed
    • Federalists and Republicans
federalists republicans
Federalists Republicans

Federalists

Republicans

  • Leaders-
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • John Adams
  • Regions of Support-
    • Strongest in northern towns and coastal south
  • Leaders-
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • James Madison
  • Regions of Support-
    • Strongest in northern farming areas and southern and western backcountry
federalists republicans1
Federalists Republicans

Federalists

Republicans

Beliefs-

rule by wealthy & educated people

Strong national gov’t

Loose construction

Limit states’ rights

Laws to help business

High tariffs

Powerful national bank

Pro-British

Beliefs-

Rule by common people

Weak national gov’t

Strict construction

Protect states’ rights

Laws to help farmers

Low tariffs

No national bank

Pro-French

election of 1796
Election of 1796
  • Decision by three votes
    • John Adams-PRESIDENT- FEDERALIST
    • Thomas Jefferson-VICE PRESIDENT-REPUBLICAN
  • Problem: the two top leaders belonged to different political parties.
problems overseas
Problems Overseas
  • As the war between France and Britain ensued, Adams found it hard to continue a policy of neutrality.
  • After French attacks on American ships, Adams sent diplomats to France.
  • “XYZ Affair” – French demand bribes
    • Americans response: a half war
    • Half-war = undeclared war
alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

Republicans harshly criticized the Federalists.

In response, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Alien Acts - gave the President power to jail or deport aliens if they were troublesome and suspected to be spies

The Sedition Act - banned the writing or speech that stirred up hatred against Congress or the President.

Aliens-foreigners who are not yet citizens

Sedition-actions that may cause people to rebel against government

fear of tyranny
Fear of Tyranny
  • Republicans feared tyranny by the federal government due to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
  • Jefferson and Madison turned to the states to protect people’s freedoms
    • The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions - Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional
    • The Kentucky Resolution - also argued that states have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law
    • United Streaming (Conflicts)
election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • TIE!
    • Between Jefferson and Burr
  • Tie breaker – the House of Representatives
  • The Federalists wanted to embarrass Jefferson, so they voted for Burr
  • For 6 days and 35 ballots the tie continued. Finally, Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by throwing his support to Jefferson.
    • Hamilton said of the two candidates, Jefferson was “not so dangerous a man”
results of election of 1800
Results of Election of 1800
  • Thomas Jefferson –Republican -3rd President
  • Aaron Burr-Republican-Vice President
  • In 1804, the 12th amendment was added to the Constitution to prevent a presidential tie again.
    • Electors now vote separately for President and V.P.
the duel
The Duel
  • On July 11, 1804 Aaron Burr(V.P.) and Alexander Hamilton(former sec. of Treasury) duel in Weehawken, N.J.
  • Duel – when two men fight using pistols
  • Hamilton was fatally injured in the duel by a shot from Burr’s pistol.
    • He died the next day.
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