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“The Birth Of Political Parties”. Chapter 10 Section 3. The Birth of Political Parties. The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties. Political parties -organized groups of people with similar ideas about government

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the birth of political parties1
The Birth of Political Parties
  • The framers of the Constitution had not expected the development of political parties.
  • Political parties-organized groups of people

with similar ideas about government

  • By the early 1790’s- two parties had formed
    • Federalists and Republicans
federalists republicans
Federalists Republicans



  • Leaders-
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • John Adams
  • Regions of Support-
    • Strongest in northern towns and coastal south
  • Leaders-
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • James Madison
  • Regions of Support-
    • Strongest in northern farming areas and southern and western backcountry
federalists republicans1
Federalists Republicans




rule by wealthy & educated people

Strong national gov’t

Loose construction

Limit states’ rights

Laws to help business

High tariffs

Powerful national bank



Rule by common people

Weak national gov’t

Strict construction

Protect states’ rights

Laws to help farmers

Low tariffs

No national bank


election of 1796
Election of 1796
  • Decision by three votes
  • Problem: the two top leaders belonged to different political parties.
problems overseas
Problems Overseas
  • As the war between France and Britain ensued, Adams found it hard to continue a policy of neutrality.
  • After French attacks on American ships, Adams sent diplomats to France.
  • “XYZ Affair” – French demand bribes
    • Americans response: a half war
    • Half-war = undeclared war
alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

Republicans harshly criticized the Federalists.

In response, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Alien Acts - gave the President power to jail or deport aliens if they were troublesome and suspected to be spies

The Sedition Act - banned the writing or speech that stirred up hatred against Congress or the President.

Aliens-foreigners who are not yet citizens

Sedition-actions that may cause people to rebel against government

fear of tyranny
Fear of Tyranny
  • Republicans feared tyranny by the federal government due to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
  • Jefferson and Madison turned to the states to protect people’s freedoms
    • The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions - Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional
    • The Kentucky Resolution - also argued that states have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law
    • United Streaming (Conflicts)
election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • TIE!
    • Between Jefferson and Burr
  • Tie breaker – the House of Representatives
  • The Federalists wanted to embarrass Jefferson, so they voted for Burr
  • For 6 days and 35 ballots the tie continued. Finally, Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by throwing his support to Jefferson.
    • Hamilton said of the two candidates, Jefferson was “not so dangerous a man”
results of election of 1800
Results of Election of 1800
  • Thomas Jefferson –Republican -3rd President
  • Aaron Burr-Republican-Vice President
  • In 1804, the 12th amendment was added to the Constitution to prevent a presidential tie again.
    • Electors now vote separately for President and V.P.
the duel
The Duel
  • On July 11, 1804 Aaron Burr(V.P.) and Alexander Hamilton(former sec. of Treasury) duel in Weehawken, N.J.
  • Duel – when two men fight using pistols
  • Hamilton was fatally injured in the duel by a shot from Burr’s pistol.
    • He died the next day.