RELIGION - Intro - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

doria
religion intro n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
RELIGION - Intro PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
RELIGION - Intro

play fullscreen
1 / 71
Download Presentation
RELIGION - Intro
93 Views
Download Presentation

RELIGION - Intro

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. RELIGION - Intro • Geo asks questions WHERE? and WHY?....where are world’s religions distributed? Why there? Why some widely distributed and some locally? • Like Lang, relig results in tension in scale betwn globalization and local diversity

  2. Global/universalizing V. Local/ethnic religions • Global/universalizing religions: proselyte, seek converts, appeal to all (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) • 60% of world’s people follow univ relig • Local/Ethnic relig: not seeking converts, designed to appeal to 1 group, usually in one place (Judaism, Hinduism,, Confucianism) • 25% follow ethnic relig • 15% no relig

  3. Universalizing V. Ethnic Relig • Many relig require exclusive adherence, so adopting a global relig can require turning away from a local one • Traditional Local/ethnic relig: • Shamanism: NA – local leader is priest, counselor, physician, claims conduit to supernatural world • Animism: local tradition mostly in Africa and Americas – world itself seen as infused with spiritual and supernatural powers

  4. Culture • Relig = critical part of culture • Core values and beliefs come from relig • Enmeshed with our cultural and social systems • Tied to pop growth • Politics • Design and structure of cities • Sacred space • Marriage, family, education, laws, health code

  5. Commonalities among world relig: • Implied value system (right and wrong) • Notion of sacred (texts and space) • Idea @ place of humans in universe • Most have creation story • Most believe in higher power/force • Most include teachings @ many facets of life – law, politics, fitness, diet, cleanliness, etc.

  6. Differences • Universalizing v. ethnic • Monotheistic v. Polytheistic • Evangelical/proselytizing v. NOT • Hierarchical v. Local Autonomy • Ex: Catholic..ex. - Protestant congregations

  7. Organizational Divisions • Branches: fundamental division (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox) • Denominations: division of branch that unites a # of local congregations (Methodist, Presbyterian, S. Baptist) • Sects: small group that has broken away from a denomination

  8. Migration Diffusion • Migrants usually take their religion with them, but unlike language, they usually maintain it for several generations. • i.e. places of immigration are usually very religiously diverse (United States)

  9. World Religions

  10. World Religions

  11. World’s Largest Religions • 1.) Christianity – most widely diffused (all of America’s, Europe, parts of Africa, Australia, New Zealand) • 2.) Islam – Middle East, N. Africa, Indonesia • 3.) Hinduism (ethnic) - India • 4.) Buddhism (difficult to measure) – East Asia

  12. Largest World Religions

  13. Largest Religious Groups in US(US = 82% Christian) • 1.) Protestant 53% (Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian) • 2.) Catholic 23% (New England, Southwest) • 3.) Mormon 2% (Utah, Idaho, Arizona, CO, Southern CA) • 4.) Orthodox 1%

  14. US Religious Distr….scale?

  15. CHRISTIANITY – universalizing, global religion • Christianity - @ 2 billion followers = world’s largest relig and most geographically dispersed • Doctrines: • Monotheistic • Origins in Judaism (Old Testament) • Christ = son of God, promised Messiah, Savior, way to salvation • Sacred Text: Bible (OT and NT) • Sacred Places: Israel, holy lands

  16. Where Distributed? • C = major relig in all of Americas, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and countries w/ Christian majority exist in Africa and Asia • 3 Major Branches: • Catholic (50%), SW and E Eur, LA, parts of N. America) • Protestantism (25%):N. Eur, Austr, NZ, N. America • Eastern Orthodox (10%): 14 self governing churches in E. Eur (i.e. Russian Orthodox, etc.)

  17. Pope Benedict Martin Luther Henry VIII

  18. Origins of Christianity • Jesus – virgin birth in Bethlehem, literal son of God, raised as a Jew, called disciples, organized church, referred to as “the Christ, Messiah,” atonement, resurrection • Catholics = Pope = head of church • E. Orthodox: split from Catholics in 1054 b/c rivalry betwn Pope in Rome and Patriarch in Constantinople • Protestantism: split 1517 – Martin Luther later Henry VIII

  19. Diffusion of Christianity • C diffused by relocation, hierarchical, and contagious diff • Hearth = Palestine • 1st diff by relocation: after Christ’s death missionary apostles carried his etchings along Roman empire (i.e. Paul) • Spread within Roman empire by contagious diff – contact betwn Christians and Pagans

  20. Diffusion – contd. • Dominance was assured in Roman empire by hierarchical diff – Emperor Constantine converted • Migration, missionary activity, and British colonialism (1500-today) spread C worldwide • Acculturation: conversion and intermarriage of natives, Africans, etc.

  21. Christian Calendar • EASTER – commemorates Christ’s resurrection and the pending resurrection of all men • CHRISTMAS – commemorates the birth of Christ – Virgin Mary, literal Son of God

  22. Organization of Space – Places of Worship • Church: comes from Greek word meaning “Lord” or “Master” • “church” can refer to the bldg and the group of people • Traditionally churches placed in town center - largest, tallest, prettiest bldg. • Church architecture varies from branch to branch, denomination to denomination (Protestant churches usually more simple) • Cemeteries – bury dead underground

  23. ISLAM – universalizing relig • @ 1 billion followers • #2 behind Christianity • Followers found worldwide, but esp in: • Middle East and N. Africa • Indonesia (most populous Muslim country) • Pakistan • Bangladesh

  24. ISLAM - Doctrines • Also has roots in Judaism (accepts many OT stories and prophets) • Monotheistic – one God – Allah • Prophet Mohammad = last and greatest prophet • Koran • 5 Pillars – Faith, Prayer, Pilgrimage, Alms, Fasting

  25. ISLAM – Distribution • Two Major branches • Sunni = 83% of Muslims – in ME and N. Africa • Shiites= 16% - in Iraq, Iran and Azerbaijan (caliph must be descended from Muhammad’s blood line) • Muslim pop in Eur and N. America in recent yrs. b/c of immigration • Arabic = lingua franca of Muslim world (Koran in Arabic)

  26. ISLAM - Origins • Abraham: Hagar and Ishmael – ancestors Muhammad & Arabic line • Muhammad – born @ 570 AD in Mecca (Saudi Arabia). Rec’d revelations from God through Angel Gabriel (Koran). Gained following in Medina, returned to Mecca & est Islam. From there diffused to rest of ME, N. Africa, E. Asia, etc. • Diffused by Muslim Empires – Ottoman, Mogul, Persian

  27. ISLAM – Holy Places • Mecca: holiest city (hajj) contains al-Ka’ba – thought to be built by Abraham and Ishmael and contains black stone given to Abraham by Gabriel as sign of the covenant (in Saudi Arabia – pilgrimage)

  28. ISLAM – holy places cont’d • Medina: Muhammad’s tomb here (in Saudi Arabia) • Jerusalem: Muhammad ascended to heaven here (Dome of the Rock – pictured below) – i.e. conflict w/ Jews Places of worship = mosques call to prayer by the muzzan from the minaret tower mosque in Indonesia

  29. BUDDHISM – universalizing relig • B = 3rd largest univ relig w/ 300 million followers • Founded by the Buddha – Siddhartha Gautama

  30. BUDDHISM - Doctrines • 4 Noble Truths: suffering, why it exists, how to prevent it (change desires) • 8 Fold Path – way to achieve “Nirvana” i.e. complete redemption (right…understanding, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) • Reincarnation

  31. BUDDHISM – where distributed • 3 main branches • Mahayanists – 56% China, Japan, Korea • Theravadists – 38% - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka • Tantrayanists – 6% - Tibet, Mongolia Actual # of Bud difficult to know b/c doesn’t require exclusive adherence. Many Budd also follow a local/ethnic relig

  32. BUDDHISM- Origins • Founder – Siddhartha Gautama – born 1563 BC present day Nepal. • Son of a lord • Led privileged life • 4 trips changed his life • Decrepit old man • Disease ridden man • Corpse…pain, suffering, felt guilty @ own life • Monk – taught him @ withdrawal from world

  33. Buddha • At 29 yrs – fled palace, lived in forest 6 yrs meditating. Emerged as “The Buddha” – the enlightened one. Spent 45 years preaching views in modern day India • 2 main branches • Theravada – oldest, believe Budd is full time occupation, become monk • Mahayana – split off 2,000 yrs ago, less demanding, emphasize Buddha’s self help and introspection

  34. BUDDHISM - Diffusion • Began in NE India – spread east by traveling monks to Asia • 1st C – AD Merchants brought Budd to China – truly became a Chinese religion • From China diffused to Korea and Japan

  35. BUDDHISM – holy places • Important places are assoc w/ life of Buddha in Nepal and NE India • Pagoda: contains relics believed to be from Buddha. Pagodas not used for congregational worship • Temples and monasteries used for individual prayer and meditation

  36. SIKHISM – universalizing relig • @ 24 million followers almost all in Punjab region of India • 1st guru (relig teacher) in late 1400s in present day Pakistan • God is perfect – people become like him by continual improvement – take resp for actions, surrender to God • Men – wear turbans, don’t cut hair • Holy Place = Golden Temple - Punjab

  37. Sikhism • Sikh Golden Temple in Punjab region – N. India

  38. JUDAISM – Ethnic relig • @ 6 million in US, 4 mill in Israel, 2mill in former USSR, 2 mill elsewhere. In U.S. Jews heavily concentrated in large cities (NYC) • Jews geographically scattered from historical captivities and conquering

  39. Jewish Doctrine • 1st monotheistic relig – 1 God and Jews are his covenant people (through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 12 tribes) • God gave land of Canaan to Abraham and his seed – divided among tribes • Ten Commandments • Torah – Old Testament (do NOT accept NT or Jesus as the Christ)

  40. Distribution/Diffusion • Jews dispersed by Romans @ 70 AD- Diaspora – scattered throughout Eur • A people w/out a nation forhundreds of years. Some in Eur assimilated. Others persecuted • Russia and Romania – pogroms in late 1800s and early 1900s • Nazis – Holocaust – 1930s-1940s

  41. ZIONISM – the return • Zionism – call for Jews to return to their promised land • Always existed, but not a major movement until the Holocaust • Holocaust survivors return to land of Palestine – have historical and spiritual claim on land (but Palestinians there for 2,000 yrs) • Israel recog as a nation by UN in 1948 backed by US and GB….conflict ever since

  42. Jewish Calendar • Rosh Hashanah – New Year • Yom Kippur – Day of Autumn • Hanukkah – Festival of Lights • Passover – commemorates Israeli liberation from slavery in Egypt – destroying angel passed over Israeli’s first borns. God led Moses with many miracles to deliver his people to their land

  43. Jewish Holy Places • Synagogues • Land of Palestine – ZION • Wailing Wall – remnant of original Jewish temple destroyed by Romans (Muslim Dome of Rock is located just in front…significance of shared sacred space has fueled conflict