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Section 5: nouns & pronouns By: Areej Dawoud
5.1 Countable & uncountable nouns • We can count some nouns (things) like book/ books: • They are countable nouns. • They have singular a/ an & plural–s • We cannot count other nouns like water: • They are uncountable nouns. • They don’t have a/ an, and they have no plural. • On the pizza there are tomatoes, peppers, garlic, cheese, and olives. • Uncountable nouns take a singular verb. • Water is important.
5.2 a/ an & some • We use a/ an in front of singular countable nouns a table / an umbrella. • We use some for the plural of countable nouns some tables. • We some in front of uncountable nouns some milk.
5.3 a/ an & the • We use the to talk about something has already been mentioned. • We use the with: • Singular countable nouns: He has a car. The car is black. • Plural countable nouns: I have 2 boys. The boys are at school. • Uncountable nouns: I have some information.The information is important. • We use a/ an when we mention something for the first time. • There is a dog and a cat outside. The dog is chasing the cat.
Generalization • We do not use thewhen we talk about something in general: • I smell roses in the air. • Gold is expensive. • We use the when we are specific. • The roses in my garden are all read. • The gold in this jeweller’s is very expensive.
Some & any • Any: • We use any in negative statements and questions both for countable and uncountable nouns. • Are there any flowers in the park? No, there are not any. Yes, there are some. • In negative statements & questions we use any to show a quantity when we do not know exactly how much or how many. • Do you have any information.? • Sorry, I don’t have any information.
Some & any • Some: • We use some in affirmative statements with countable plural nouns and with uncountable singular nouns. • I need some eggs and some sugar. • We use some to show a quantity when we do not know exactly how much or how many.
Measurement words • Uncountable nouns can be measured by measured words. They always have a prepositional phrase with of.
Quantity questions • How many slices of bread do you eat for breakfast? About six. • Lemons, friends, apples, ….. • How much coffee do you drink? Juice do you drink? • Money, sugar, milk,….
Whose & possessive nouns • Whosedog is that? That is Julia’s dog. • Whose books are these? They are his books. • The genitive:
Section 6: The simple past • Regular verbs: • I, you, he, she, it, we, they → worked • We use the simple past to talk about actions and situations that began and ended in the past. • We can use specific time expressions like yesterday, last week, last month
The simple past: irregular verbs • She went to Africa last year. She saw a chimpanzee there. • I, you, he, she, it, we, they → went