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Latin Verbs. I. Overview We have learned that Latin Nouns and Adjectives are put into groups with other Nouns or Adjectives that are formed in the same way. We call these groups of nouns and adjectives Declensions.

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latin verbs
Latin Verbs

I. Overview

We have learned that Latin Nouns and Adjectives are put into groups with other Nouns or Adjectives that are formed in the same way.

We call these groups of nouns and adjectives Declensions.

We have also learned that nouns and adjectives change their endings to signify which part of the sentence the word is performing.

We call the endings a noun or adjective takes on their Case Endings.

All words in the same Declension share same form of the case endings, except in the Nominative Singular.

i overview
I. Overview

Just like nouns and adjectives, we put Lain verbs into groups that of verbs that are formed in the same way.

We call these categories of verbs Conjugations.

Verbs too change their endings, but in a way different from nouns. The endings of the verb tell us about who is doing the verbal action.

We call the endings of a verb the Personal Endings.

i overview1
I. Overview

NB: Terminology 1

When dealing with verbs in both Latin and English, we need to keep our terminology straight.

When we have a particular verb form and are asked to give its defining information, we are asked to supply five things, and we need to know what each means:

1. Person

2. Number

3. Tense

4. Voice

5. Mood

i overview2
I. Overview

1. Person: This defines the subject of the verb. By person, we mean First (I, we), Second (you, you pl.) or Third (he, she, it, they).

2. Number: This tells us whether the subject is Singular or Plural, i.e., the difference between I and we, etc.

3. Tense: Tense refers to when an action was done and also tells us whether it was completed. The tenses in Latin are:

1. Present 4. Perfect

2. Imperfect 5. Pluperfect

3. Future 6. Future Perfect

i overview3
I. Overview

4. Voice: Voice refers to how we describe the verbal action in relation to the subject. The two voices in Latin are Active and Passive.

When a verb is Active, the Subject is the doer of the verbal action. When a verb is passive, the Subject has the verbal action done onto him.

5. Mood: Mood refers to the attitude of the speaker towards what he is describing, i.e., is he speaking about a wish, an opinion, a fact, etc.

The Moods in Latin are:

1. Indicative – Facts

2. Subjunctive – Wishes, Opinions, etc.

3. Imperative – Commands

i overview4
I. Overview

NB: The Four Principle Parts

When you look up a verb in your dictionary, it will be listed with what are called its Four Principle Parts:

Amo, Amāre, Amavi, Amatus,-a, -um

1st Person Present Active 1st Person Perfect Passive

Singular Infinitve Singular Participle

Present Perfect

“I love” “To Love” “I loved” “Having been loved”

Video, Vidēre, Vidi, Visus, -a, -um

Duco, Ducere, Duxi, Ductus, -a, -um

i overview5
I. Overview

NB: The Four Principle Parts

Whenever we learn a verb in Latin, we must always learn what are called the Four Principle Parts.

These are the various stems which Latin uses to form the different tense forms of a verb.

ALL FOUR PRINCIPLE PARTS MUST ALWAYS BE MEMORIZED WHEN LEARNING A VERB. Without them, you cannot properly use a verb in all its forms.

And No Whining about the Principle Parts and how to use them – the fact that Latin uses one stem for the present tense and another for the perfect is no different from the way English uses the stem “Say” for the present and “Said” for the past.

You already know how to do this, so No Whining.

ii the conjugations
II. The Conjugations

Latin verbs are broken down into four categories we call Conjugations.

You CANNOT put a Latin noun into its forms correctly without knowing its Declension.

Just so, you CANNOT use a Latin Verb correctly without knowing its Conjugation.

So the first thing we must learn is how to identify the Conjugation of a verb from its Principle Parts.

What defines each of the conjugations is what we call the Thematic Vowel.

ii the conjugations1
II. The Conjugations

Each of the four Conjugations of Latin Verbs has what we call a Thematic Vowel.

When a verb belongs to a particular conjugation, it means the Thematic Vowel always appears in the verb in its Present, Imperfect, and Future tense forms, so the Conjugation and Thematic Vowel are crucial to forming a verb correctly.

ii the conjugations2
II. The Conjugations

The Thematic Vowels for each of the Conjugations are the following:

1st Conjugation: ā

2nd Conjugation: ē

3rd Conjugation: e

4th Conjugation: ī

When you encounter a verb in Latin, the first thing you must do is identify the Conjugation. You identify the Conjugation by identifying the verb’s Thematic Vowel, which can be told from looking at the First and Second Principle Parts TOGETHER.

ii the conjugations3
II. The Conjugations

Identifying the Thematic Vowel:

The 1st and 2nd Principle Parts of a verb TOGETHER give us a verb’s Thematic Vowel and Conjugation. To see why we need both the 1st and 2nd Principle Parts, consider these exempla:

1st Amo, Amāre, Amavi, Amatus,-a, -um

2nd Video, Vidēre, Vidi, Visus, -a, -um

3rd Duco, Ducere, Duxi, Ductus, -a, -um

3rd-io Capio, Capere, Cepi, Captus, -a, -um

4th Audio, Audīre, Audivi,Auditus, -a, -um

Notice that without both Principle Parts, it is ambiguous what Conjugation a verb belongs to.

ii the conjugations recognizing the conjugation from the principle parts
II. The Conjugations:Recognizing the Conjugation from the Principle Parts

Conjugation 1st P.P. 2nd P.P. T.V.

1st - o - āre ā

2nd - eo - ēre ē

3rd - o - ere e

3rd –io - io - ere e

4th - io - īre ī

ii the conjugations4
II. The Conjugations

Recognizing the Conjugation from the Principle Parts: Exempla

What is the conjugation of the following verbs?

1. ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātum =

2. ascendō, ascendere, ascendī, ascensum =

3. audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum =

4. dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitum =

5. exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitum =

6. imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum =

7. capiō, capere, cēpī, captum =

8. mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum =

9. poscō, poscere, poposcī, — =

10. veniō, venīre, venī, ventum =

ii the conjugations5
II. The Conjugations

Recognizing the Conjugation from the Principle Parts: Exempla

What is the conjugation of the following verbs?

1. ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātum = 1st

2. ascendō, ascendere, ascendī, ascensum = 3rd

3. audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum = 4th

4. dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitum = 2nd

5. exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitum = 2nd

6. imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum = 1st

7. capiō, capere, cēpī, captum = 3rd -io

8. mittō, mittere, mīsī, missum = 3rd

9. poscō, poscere, poposcī, — = 3rd

10. veniō, venīre, venī, ventum = 4th

iii the present system
III. The Present System

As mentioned before, Latin uses different stems for different tenses. We learn the four Principle parts of any verb in order to form the three different verbal stems any Latin verb has.

Stems 1st + 2nd P.P.  Present Active/Passive

3rd P.P.  Perfect Active

4th P.P.  Perfect Passive

Here we will discuss the tenses you form on the Present Stem, the so-called Present System

iii the present system1
III. The Present System

The Present System refers to the tenses we form using the Present Active/Passive Stem.

These are:

1. Present

2. Imperfect

3. Future

We form these tenses by adding the Present Active Personal Endings and the appropriate Tense Marker to the Present Stem.

To form the Present Stem, we drop the –re from the 2nd Principle Part.

iii the present system2
III. The Present System

Formation of the Present Stem: Drop the –re from the 2nd Principle Part - Exempla:

1. ambulō, ambulāre =

2. ascendō, ascendere =

3. audiō, audīre =

4. dēbeō, dēbēre =

5. exerceō, exercēre =

6. imperō, imperāre =

7. capiō, capere =

8. mittō, mittere =

9. poscō, poscere =

10. veniō, venīre =

iii the present system3
III. The Present System

Formation of the Present Stem: Drop the –re from the 2nd Principle Part - Exempla:

1. ambulō, ambulāre = ambula-

2. ascendō, ascendere = ascende-

3. audiō, audīre = audi-

4. dēbeō, dēbēre = debe-

5. exerceō, exercēre = exerce-

6. imperō, imperāre = impera-

7. capiō, capere = cape-

8. mittō, mittere = mitte-

9. poscō, poscere = posce-

10. veniō, venīre = veni-

iii the present system stem vowels and tense
III. The Present System:Stem Vowels and Tense

NB: The Present Stem will always end in a vowel.

This vowel will change slightly between the Present Tense and the Imperfect and Future Tenses according to the following rule:

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

iii the present system4
III. The Present System

Now that we have the Present Stem, we must learn the Active Personal Endings of the Present System:

- o / m - mus

- s - tis

- t - nt

All active forms of the Present, Imperfect, and Future Tenses use these endings and only these endings, which we add to the Present Stem following a formula for each tense.

iii the present system the present tense
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

The Present Tense is formed by adding the Personal Endings directly onto the Present Stem.

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

NB: 1st Conjugation – –a drops out before –o of 1st Sing.

3rd Conjugation – T.V. drops out before –o of 1st Sing.

– T.V. changes to –u in 3rd Pl.

3rd –io – T.V. does not drop out before –o of 1st Sing.

– T.V. changes to –iu in 3rd Pl.

4th Conjugation – T.V. changes to –iu in 3rd Pl.

iii the present system the present tense1
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

NB: –a drops out before –o of 1st Sing.

Exemplum: amo, amāre, amavi, amatus

Stem = amā(–Ends in T.V.)

Am(a)+o = Amo Ama+mus = Amamus

Ama+s = Amas Ama+tis = Amatis

Ama+t = Amat Ama+nt = Amant

iii the present system the present tense2
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

Exemplum: habeo, habēre, habui, habitus

Stem = habē(–Ends in T.V.)

Habe+o = Habeo Habe+mus = Habemus

Habe+s = Habes Habe+tis = Habetis

Habe+t = Habet Habe+nt = Habent

iii the present system the present tense3
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

NB: – T.V. drops out before –o of 1st Sing.

– T.V. changes to –u in 3rd Pl.

Exemplum: duco, ducere, duxi, ductus

Stem = duci(–T.V. Changes to –i)

Duc(i)+o= Duco Duci+mus = Ducimus

Duci+s = Ducis Duci+tis = Ducitis

Duci+t = Ducit Duc(i)+nt = Ducunt

iii the present system the present tense4
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

NB: – T.V. does not drop out before –o of 1st Sing.

– T.V. changes to –iu in 3rd Pl.

Exemplum: capio, capere, cepi, captus

Stem = capi(–T.V. changes to –i)

Capi+o = Capio Capi+mus = Capimus

Capi+s = Capis Capi+tis = Capitis

Capi+t = Capit Capi+u+nt = Capiunt

iii the present system the present tense5
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

NB:– T.V. changes to –iu in 3rd Pl.

Exemplum: audio, audīre, audivi, auditus

Stem = audi(–Ends in T.V.)

Audi+o = Audio Audi+mus = Audimus

Audi+s = Audis Audi+tis = Auditis

Audi+t = Audit Audi+u+nt= Audiunt

iii the present system the present tense6
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

1st Conjugation: T.V. = ā

Festino Festinamus

Festinas Festinatis

Festinat Festinant

iii the present system the present tense7
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

2nd Conjugation: T.V. = ē

Video Videmus

Vides Videtis

Videt Vident

iii the present system the present tense8
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd Conjugation: T.V. = e becomes i

Peto Petimus

Petis Petitis

Petit Petunt

iii the present system the present tense9
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd –io Conjugation: T.V. = e becomes i

Facio Facimus

Facis Facitis

Facit Faciunt

iii the present system the present tense10
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Present Tense = Present Stem (ending in T.V.) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

4th Conjugation: T.V. = ī

Venio Venimus

Venis Venitis

Venit Veniunt

iii the present system the present tense11
III. The Present System:The Present Tense

Festino Festinamus Peto Petimus

Festinas Festinatis Petis Petitis

Festinat Festinant Petit Petunt

Video Videmus Facio Facimus

Vides Videtis Facis Facitis

Videt Vident Facit Faciunt

Venio Venimus

Venis Venitis

Venit Veniunt

iii the present system the imperfect tense
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

The Imperfect Tense is formed by adding the Tense Marker –ba– to the verb stem (after T.V) plus the Personal Endings.

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

(Tense Marker)

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

iii the present system the imperfect tense1
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

Exemplum: amo, amāre, amavi, amatus

Stem = amā (–Ends in T.V.)

Ama+ba+m = Amabam Ama+ba+mus = Amabamus

Ama+ba+s = Amabas Ama+ba+tis = Amabatis

Ama+ba+t = Amabat Ama+ba+nt = Amabant

iii the present system the imperfect tense2
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

Exemplum: habeo, habēre, habui, habitus

Stem = habē(–Ends in T.V.)

Habe+ba+m = Habebam Habe+ba+mus = Habebamus

Habe+ba+s = Habebas Habe+ba+tis = Habebatis

Habe+ba+t = Habebat Habe+ba+nt = Habebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense3
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

Exemplum: duco, ducere, duxi, ductus

Stem = duce(–T.V. becomes –e)

Duce+ba+m= Ducebam Duce+ba+mus = Ducebamus

Duce+ba+s = Ducebas Duce+ba+tis = Ducebatis

Duce+ba+t = Ducebat Duce+ba+nt = Ducebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense4
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

Exemplum: capio, capere, cepi, captus

Stem = capie(–T.V. becomes –ie)

Capie+ba+m = Capiebam Capie+ba+mus = Capiebamus

Capie+ba+s = Capiebas Capie+ba+tis = Capiebatis

Capie+ba+t = Capiebat Capie+ba+nt = Capiebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense5
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: All Conjugations: 1st Singular uses –m

Exemplum: audio, audīre, audivi, auditus

Stem = audie(T.V. becomes –ie)

Audie+ba+m = Audiebam Audie+ba+mus = Audiebamus

Audie+ba+s = Audiebas Audie+ba+tis = Audiebatis

Audie+ba+t = Audiebat Audie+ba+nt = Audiebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense6
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla: Conjugate the following verbs in your notebooks in the Imperfect Tense.

1. festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatus

2. video, vidēre, vidi, visus

3. peto, petere, petivi, petitus

4. facio, facere, feci, factus

5. venio, venire, veni, ventus

iii the present system the imperfect tense7
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla:

1st Conjugation: festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatus

T.V. = ā

Festinabam Festinabamus

Festinabas Festinabatis

Festinabat Festinabant

iii the present system the imperfect tense8
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla:

2nd Conjugation: video, vidēre, vidi, visus

T.V. = ē

Videbam Videbamus

Videbas Videbatis

Videbat Videbant

iii the present system the imperfect tense9
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd Conjugation: peto, petere, petivi, petitus

T.V. = e

Petebam Petebamus

Petebas Petebatis

Petebat Petebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense10
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd –io Conjugation: facio, facere, feci, factus

T.V. = ie

Faciebam Faciebamus

Faciebas Faciebatis

Faciebat Faciebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense11
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Imperfect = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + ba + Personal Endings

Exempla:

4th Conjugation: venio, venire, veni, ventus

T.V. = ie

Veniebam Veniebamus

Veniebas Veniebatis

Veniebat Veniebant

iii the present system the imperfect tense12
III. The Present System:The Imperfect Tense

Festinabam Festinabamus Petebam Petebamus

Festinabas Festinabatis Petebas Petebatis

Festinabat Festinabant Petebat Petebant

Videbam Videbamus Faciebam Faciebamus

Videbas Videbatis Faciebas Faciebatis

Videbat Videbant Faciebat Faciebant

Veniebam Veniebamus

Veniebas Veniebatis

Veniebat Veniebant

iii the present system the future tense
III. The Present System:The Future Tense

The Future Tense is formed in two different ways, depending on the Conjugation of the verb.

Verbs of the 1st and 2nd Conjugation follow one pattern or equation, while verbs of the 3rd and 4th Conjugation follow a second pattern or equation.

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

(Tense Marker)

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

(e/ie = Future Tense Marker)

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –o

– -i of Tense Marker drops out in 1st Singular

– -i of Tense Marker becomes –u in 3rd Plural

Exemplum: amo, amāre, amavi, amatus

Stem = amā(–Ends in T.V.)

Ama+b(i)+o = Amabo Ama+bi+mus = Amabimus

Ama+bi+s = Amabis Ama+bi+tis = Amabitis

Ama+bi+t = Amabit Ama+bu+nt = Amabunt

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation1
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –o

– -i of Tense Marker drops out in 1st Singular

– -i of Tense Marker becomes –u in 3rd Plural

Exemplum: habeo, habēre, habui, habitus

Stem = habē(–Ends in T.V.)

Habe+b(i)+o = Habebo Habe+bi+mus = Habebimus

Habe+bi+s = Habebis Habe+bi+tis = Habebitis

Habe+bi+t = Habebit Habe+bu+nt = Habebunt

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation2
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

Exempla: Conjugate the following verbs in your notebooks in the Future Tense.

1. festino, festinare, festinavi, festinatus

2. video, vidēre, vidi, visus

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation3
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

Exempla:

1st Conjugation: festino, festināre, festinavi, festinatus

T.V. = ā

Festinabo Festinabimus

Festinabis Festinabitis

Festinabit Festinabunt

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation4
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

Exempla: 1st Conjugation: T.V. = ā

Present: Festino Festinamus

Festinas Festinatis

Festinat Festinant

Imperfect: Festinabam Festinabamus

Festinabas Festinabatis

Festinabat Festinabant

Future: Festinabo Festinabimus

Festinabis Festinabitis

Festinabit Festinabunt

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation5
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

1st and 2nd = Present Stem (Ending in T.V.) + bi + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

Exempla:

2nd Conjugation: video, vidēre, vidi, visus

T.V. = ē

Videbo Videbimus

Videbis Videbitis

Videbit Videbunt

iii the present system the future tense 1 st and 2 nd conjugation6
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 1st and 2nd Conjugation

Exempla: 2nd Conjugation: T.V. = ē

Present: Video Videmus

Vides Videtis

Videt Vident

Imperfect: Videbam Videbamus

Videbas Videbatis

Videbat Videbant

Future: Videbo Videbimus

Videbis Videbitis

Videbit Videbunt

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

The 3rd and 4th Conjugations form the Future Tense by changing the vowels at the end of the verb stem.

These vowels themselves act as the Tense Marker that shows us the verb is in the future. The Personal Endings are then added right onto the stem ending in the modified vowels.

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation1
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Thankfully, the changes to the vowels at the end of the verb stem are very simple:

The stem changes its Thematic Vowel in exactly the same way as the stem changes in the Imperfect Tense.

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

(e/ie = Future Tense Marker)

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –am; -e of stem drops before –am

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation2
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –am

Exemplum: duco, ducere, duxi, ductus

Stem = duce(–T.V. becomes –e)

Duc(e)+am = Ducam Duce+mus = Ducemus

Duce+s = Duces Duce+tis = Ducetis

Duce+t = Ducet Duce+nt = Ducent

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation3
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –am

Exemplum: capio, capere, cepi, captus

Stem = capie(–T.V. becomes –ie)

Capi(e)+am = Capiam Capie+mus = Capiemus

Capie+s = Capies Capie+tis = Capietis

Capie+t = Capiet Capie+nt = Capient

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation4
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd–io 4th

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

NB: 1st Singular uses –am

Exemplum: audio, audīre, audivi, auditus

Stem = audie(T.V. becomes –ie)

Audi(e)+am = Audiam Audie+mus = Audiemus

Audie+s = Audies Audie+tis = Audietis

Audie+t = Audiet Audie+nt = Audient

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation5
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Exempla: Conjugate the following verbs in your notebooks in the Future Tense.

3. peto, petere, petivi, petitus

4. facio, facere, feci, factus

5. venio, venire, veni, ventus

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation6
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd Conjugation: peto, petere, petivi, petitus

Petam Petemus

Petes Petetis

Petet Petent

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation7
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Now write out

peto, petere, petivi, petitus

In the Present and Imperfect Tense, paying careful attention to where the forms differ from those of the Future Tense.

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation8
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Exempla: 3rd Conjugation

Present: Peto Petimus

Petis Petitis

Petit Petunt

Imperfect: Petebam Petebamus

Petebas Petebatis

Petebat Petebant

Future: Petam Petemus

Petes Petetis

Petet Petent

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation9
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

3rd –io Conjugation: facio, facere, feci, factus

Faciam Faciemus

Facies Facietis

Faciet Facient

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation10
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Now write out

facio, facere, feci, factus

In the Present and Imperfect Tense, paying careful attention to where the forms differ from those of the Future Tense.

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation11
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Exempla: 3rd –io Conjugation

Present: Facio Facimus

Facis Facitis

Facit Faciunt

Imperfect: Faciebam Faciebamus

Faciebas Faciebatis

Faciebat Faciebant

Future: Faciam Faciemus

Facies Facietis

Faciet Facient

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation12
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

3rd and 4th = Present Stem (T.V. changes to e/ie) + Personal Endings

Exempla:

4th Conjugation: venio, venire, veni, ventus

Veniam Veniemus

Venies Venietis

Veniet Venient

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation13
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Now write out

venio, venire, veni, ventus

In the Present and Imperfect Tense, paying careful attention to where the forms differ from those of the Future Tense.

iii the present system the future tense 3 rd and 4 th conjugation14
III. The Present System:The Future Tense – 3rd and 4th Conjugation

Exempla: 4th Conjugation

Present: Venio Venimus

Venis Venitis

Venit Veniunt

Imperfect: Veniebam Veniebamus

Veniebas Veniebatis

Veniebat Veniebant

Future: Veniam Veniemus

Venies Venietis

Veniet Venient

iii the present system review stem vowels and tense
III. The Present System:Review – Stem Vowels and Tense

Tense 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd –io 4th

Present -a -e -i -i -i

Imperfect -a -e -e -ie -ie

Future -a -e -e -ie -ie

iii the present system irregular verbs sum esse fu fut rus
III. The Present System:Irregular Verbs – sum, esse, fuī, futūrus

One final tricky part of the Present System is the set of Irregular Verbs, those verbs whose forms do not follow the regular pattern of the Four Conjugations.

The most important of the Irregular Verbs is the verb “To Be,”

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus

The forms of this verb in the Present, Imperfect, and Future Tenses do utilize the same endings as other verbs in the Present System, but the verb does not use the same Tense Markers as Regular Verbs in the Present System and changes its Stem in ways unlike Regular Verbs.

The forms of sum, esse, fuī, futūrus do not follow an equation and must simply be memorized.

iii the present system irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus
III. The Present System:Irregular Verbs – sum, esse, fui, futurus

The Present Tense:

Sum Sumus

Es Estis

Est Sunt

iii the present system irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus1
III. The Present System:Irregular Verbs – sum, esse, fui, futurus

The Imperfect Tense:

Eram Eramus

Eras Eratis

Erat Erant

iii the present system irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus2
III. The Present System:Irregular Verbs – sum, esse, fui, futurus

The Future Tense:

Ero Erimus

Eris Eritis

Erit Erunt

iii the present system irregular verbs sum esse fui futurus3
III. The Present System:Irregular Verbs – sum, esse, fui, futurus

Present: Sum Sumus

Es Estis

Est Sunt

Imperfect: Eram Eramus

Eras Eratis

Erat Erant

Future: Ero Erimus

Eris Eritis

Erit Erunt

iii the present system review
III. The Present System:Review

To practice, put the following verbs into the appropriate tenses:

1. bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus – Present, Future

2. relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus – Imperfect, Future

3. oro, orāre, oravi, oratus – Present, Future

4. iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus – Imperfect, Future

5. invideo, invidēre, invidi, invisus – Present, Future

6. munio, munīre, munivi, munitus – Present, Imperfect

iii the present system review1
III. The Present System:Review

1. bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus –

Present: Bibo Bibimus

Bibis Bibitis

Bibit Bibunt

Future: Bibam Bibemus

Bibes Bibetis

Bibet Bibent

iii the present system review2
III. The Present System:Review

2. relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus –

Imperfect: Relinquebam Relinquebamus

Relinquebas Relinquebatis

Relinquebat Relinquebant

Future: Relinquam Relinquemus

Relinques Relinquetis

Relinquet Relinquent

iii the present system review3
III. The Present System:Review

3. oro, orāre, oravi, oratus –

Present: Oro Oramus

Oras Oratis

Orat Orant

Future: Orabo Orabimus

Orabis Orabitis

Orabit Orabunt

iii the present system review4
III. The Present System:Review

4. iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus –

Imperfect: Iaciebam Iaciebamus

Iaciebas Iaciebatis

Iaciebat Iaciebant

Future: Iaciam Iaciemus

Iacies Iacietis

Iaciet Iacient

iii the present system review5
III. The Present System:Review

5. invideo, invidēre, invidi, invisus –

Present: Invideo Invidemus

Invides Invidetis

Invidet Invident

Future: Invidebo Invidebimus

Invidebis Invidebitis

Invidebit Invidebunt

iii the present system review6
III. The Present System:Review

6. munio, munīre, munivi, munitus –

Present: Munio Munimus

Munis Munitis

Munit Muniunt

Imperfect: Muniebam Muniebamus

Muniebas Muniebatis

Muniebat Muniebant