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The Cheater’s Guide

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  1. The Cheater’s Guide To AP Style

  2. Capitals • Proper nouns

  3. Capitals • Proper nouns • “Real” titles directly before names

  4. Capitals • Proper nouns • “Real” titles directly before names • Regions • Legislative bodies: Council, Assembly

  5. Capital Don’ts • Plurals: the departments of Labor and Justice; the Tennessee and Ohio rivers • Compass directions • Shorthand names on second reference, or generic references

  6. Numbers • Figures or words?

  7. Numbers • Figures or words? • Generally follow the digit rule • Mix and match • Only years at the start of a sentence

  8. Numbers: exceptions • Ages are always figures • Dimensions (inches, feet, yards) • Percent

  9. Abbreviations • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.

  10. Abbreviations • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question. • Some things are always abbreviated: FBI, CNN.

  11. Abbreviations • To abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question. • Some things are always abbreviated: FBI, CNN. • Some are abbreviated in specific usages: doctor vs. Dr. Jones; Wis. Vs. Wisconsin.

  12. Abbreviations • Some are evolving: frequently asked questions (FAQ) • Some can be abbreviated on second reference (National Rifle Association = NRA).

  13. Titles • “Coach” is considered a job description, not a formal title: L/C. • Professor--lowercase and do not abbreviate before a name. • Plurals • Fire & police

  14. Addresses • Abbreviate exact numbered address: • 801 Algoma Blvd. but Algoma Boulevard. • B-A-S • Everything else is spelled out: road, lane, drive, circle, court, etc.

  15. Time references • Use days of week within seven days of an event (not today or tonight). Otherwise specify the date.

  16. Time references • Use days of week within seven days of an event (not today or tonight). Otherwise specify the date. • Abbreviate months only when a day is specified: February 2007 vs. Feb. 27, 2007.

  17. Time references • Five months (five letters or fewer) are never abbreviated.

  18. Time references • Five months (five letters or fewer) are never abbreviated. • There is neither a 12 a.m. or a 12 p.m. • Avoid redundancies: next Tuesday, 10 a.m. this morning.

  19. Word usage • If you do not recognize a word, look it up.

  20. Word usage • If you do not recognize a word, look it up. • Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle.

  21. Word usage • If you do not recognize a word, look it up. • Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle. • Trademarks: photocopy sted Xerox.

  22. Punctuation • Commas. • Hyphens • Quotation marks. • Apostrohes. • Colons & semicolons.

  23. Commas • 10 simple rules. • In journalism: When in doubt, leave it out.

  24. Hyphens • Hyphens—use sparingly. • Distinguish between compound adjectives (hyphenated) and adverb-adjective combos (no hyphens).

  25. Hyphens • Little-known athlete • Widely known author

  26. Hyphens • Hyphen is not the same as a dash, which can work like a comma or parens to emphasize or set apart. • - • —

  27. Quotation marks He said, “I am shocked and horrified by the incident. “I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.”

  28. Quotation marks He said he was “shocked and horrified by the incident.” “I am so horrified, in fact, that I will ask for the death penalty.”

  29. Quotation marks • Commas and periods always, always, always inside (in U.S. usage).

  30. Quotation marks • Commas and periods always, always always inside (in U.S. usage). • Question marks, exclamation points depend on the sense of the sentence.

  31. Apostrophes • Special rules for possessives: plural nouns not ending in s, plural nouns ending in s, nouns plural in form singular in meaning, nouns the same in singular and plural, etc.

  32. Apostrophes • The ’20s. • Not the 20’s. • Four A’s and two B’s. • ABCs, VIPs.

  33. Colons & semicolons • Which is which? ; versus :

  34. Colons • He promised this: The company will make good on all the losses. • There were three considerations: expense, time and feasibility.

  35. Semicolons • He was survived by a son, John Smith, of Chicago; three daughters, Jane Smith of Wichita, Kan., Mary Smith, of Denver, and Susan of Boston; and a sister, Martha, of Omaha, Neb. • Can be used to link independent clauses but may signal complexity.

  36. Prefixes • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.

  37. Prefixes • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant. • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.

  38. Prefixes • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant. • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear. • Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect.

  39. Prefixes • Generally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant. • Nonprofit, but non-nuclear. • Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect. • Look it up!

  40. Suffixes • Two words for the verb form: • Stand out • Hyphenate noun or adjective • Standout (player)

  41. Suffixes • Two words for the verb form: • Stand out • Hyphenate noun or adjective • Standout (player) • But there are many exceptions!

  42. LOOK IT UP!!!