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Instructor’s Name Semester, 200_. Chapter Objectives. Identify the signs of an aging population. Define the following groups-old, young old, old old, and oldest old. Define the terms aged, aging, elders, gerontology, and geriatrics.

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Instructor s name semester 200

Instructor’s Name

Semester, 200_

Chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

  • Identify the signs of an aging population.

  • Define the following groups-old, young old, old old, and oldest old.

  • Define the terms aged, aging, elders, gerontology, and geriatrics.

  • State several commonly held myths about the senior population.

  • Explain the meaning of an age-pyramid.

Chapter objectives1
Chapter Objectives

  • List the factors that affect the size and age of a population.

  • Define fertility and mortality rates and explain how they impact life expectancy.

  • Explain the difference between support and labor-force ratios.

  • Briefly outline elder abuse and neglect in the United States.

Chapter objectives2
Chapter Objectives

  • Describe the typical elder, with regard to martial status, living arrangements, racial and ethnic background, economic status, and geographic location.

  • Identify the six instrumental needs of elders.

  • Briefly summarize the Older Americans Act of 1965.

Chapter objectives3
Chapter Objectives

  • List the services provided for elders in most communities.

  • Explain the difference between respite care and adult day care.

  • Identify the four different levels of tasks with which elderly need assistance.


  • Aged

    • state of being old

  • Aging

    • changes that occur as living things grow older

  • Gerontology

    • study of aging

  • Geriatrics

    • medical practice specializing in treatment of the aged

Myths of aging
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “After age 65, life goes steadily downhill.”

  • Truth:

    • There is no magic age that defines the boundary between healthy middle age and total decrepitude.

Myths of aging1
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Old people are all alike.”

  • Truth:

    • There are more differences among seniors than any other segment of the U.S. population.

Myths of aging2
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Old people are lonely and ignored by their families.”

  • Truth:

    • Seniors are the least likely to be lonely of any age group; and those who live alone are likely to be in close contact, either in person or by telephone, with close friends and/or their children.

Myths of aging3
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Old people are senile.”

  • Truth:

    • Senility is the result of disease and only affects about 5% of seniors living in noninstitutional settings.

Myths of aging4
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Old people have a good life.”

  • Truth:

    • Though seniors do gain certain advantages when they retire and when their children leave home, they still face a number of concerns such as loss of loved ones, loss of health, and loss of value in society.

Myths of aging5
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Most old people are sickly.”

  • Truth:

    • Most older people do have at least one chronic health problem, but the majority of seniors are able to live active life-styles.

Myths of aging6
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Old people no longer have any sexual interest or ability.”

  • Truth:

    • Sexual interest does not diminish with age, but there is a slight alteration in sexual response. Nonetheless, many seniors in reasonably good health have active and satisfying sex lives.

Myths of aging7
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Most old people end up in nursing homes.”

  • Truth:

    • Only approximately 6% of those above the age of 65 live in nursing homes. While that % jumps to 25% for the oldest old, (85 & over) it is still well below half.

Myths of aging8
Myths of Aging

  • Myth:

    • “Older people are unproductive.”

  • Truth:

    • There is no consistent pattern to show superior productivity in any age group.

Demography of aging
Demography of Aging

  • Size & Growth

  • Factors which affect population size & age

    • fertility rates

    • mortality rates

    • migration

Support labor force ratios
Support & Labor-Force Ratios

  • Support ratio

    • comparison between society’s unproductive and productive individuals

    • total support ratio youth support ratio

    • elderly support ratio

  • Labor-force support ratio

    • based upon the number who are actually working

Demography of aging1
Demography of Aging

  • Marital status & other variables

  • Living arrangement

  • Racial and Ethnic composition

  • Geographic Distribution

  • Economic Status

Housing needs of seniors
Housing Needs of Seniors

  • Housing

    • older homes

    • homes of lower value

    • in need of repair

    • less likely to have central heating and air conditioning

    • less likely to have a telephone

Mobile homes


Single family

Health profile of elders
Health Profile of Elders

  • Mortality

  • Morbidity

    • Chronic conditions

    • Impairments

Health behaviors
Health Behaviors

  • Less likely

    • consume large amounts of alcohol

    • smoke cigarettes

    • overweight or obese

  • when compared to younger counterparts

  • Neglect and Abuse

Instrumental needs of elders
Instrumental Needs of Elders

  • Income

  • Housing

  • Personal Care

  • Health Care

Transportation concerns of seniors
Transportation Concerns of Seniors

  • Important to remain independent

  • Solutions to Transportation Problems

    • Fare reductions

    • Subsidies to mass transit

    • Subsidies for taxis

    • Funds to assist centers in purchasing equipped vehicles

Community facilities services
Community Facilities & Services

  • Meal service

    • programs such as meals-on-wheels & congregate meals

  • Homemaker service

    • enables elderly to remain in their own homes

  • Chore & home maintenance service

  • Visitor service

Community facilities services1
Community Facilities & Services

  • Adult day care

    • provides care for seniors left alone all day

  • Respite care

  • Home health care

  • Senior centers

  • Other Services

Chapter 9
Chapter 9