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Introduction to PC. Foundation Year, Semester I. Prepared & Taught by Mr. SUN SETHA. Tel: (855)11 25 66 25, E-mail: [email protected] rs. Computer System Basics Classification of Systems - Microcomputer - Minicomputer - Mainframe - Supercomputer. Microcomputer

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Introduction to PC

Foundation Year, Semester I

Prepared & Taught by Mr. SUN SETHA

Tel: (855)11 25 66 25, E-mail: [email protected]


Computer System Basics

Classification of Systems

- Microcomputer

- Minicomputer

- Mainframe

- Supercomputer


- Personal Computer / Workstation

- Desktop machine, including portables

- Used for small, individual tasks-such as simple desktop publishing, small business accounting, etc…

- Typical cost: $2,000 to $5,000

- Example: The PCs in the labs are microcomputers


- Medium sized server

- Desk to fridge sized machine

- Used for distributed data processing and multi-user server support

- Typical cost: $10,000 to $500,000

- Example: Banda is a minicomputer


- Large server / Large Business applications

- Large machines in purpose built rooms

- Used as large servers and for intensive business applications

- Typical cost: $500,000 to $10,000,000

- Example: IBM ES/9000, IBM 370, IBM 390


- Scientific applications

- Large machines. Typically employ parallel architecture (multiple processors running together)

- Used for VERY numerically intensive jobs

- Typical cost: $5,000,000 to $25,000,000

- Example: Cray

 Part I


About Your Computer

 Part I


About Your Computer


About Your Computer

1.1. What’s in Computer System?

The Onion Model- layers:

- Hardware (H.W)

- Basic Input Output System (BIOS)

- Software (S.W)

Computer = Hardware + Software

Hardware (H.W)

- The Chunky stuff!

- If you can touch it… it’s probably hardware!

- The mother board

+ If we have motherboards…surely there must be fatherboard? Right?

+ What about sonboards, or daughterboards?

- Hard Disk Drives

- Monitors

- Keyboards


- Basic Input Output System

+ Directly controls hardware devices like UARTS (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) – Used in COM ports.

- Stored in the ROM of the machine.

+ What’s ROM?

- Preserved while the computer is turned off

+ How?

+ Why?


- Divided into two main areas

+ Operating System

. Use to control the hardware and to provide an interface between the user and the hardware.

. Manages resources in the machine, like

* Memory

* Disk drives

+ Applications

. Includes games, word-processors, databases, etc…

1.2.1. Monitor: Is the TV of Computer for Display information from System Unit. (Output Device)

Monochrome (Black & White)


Polychrome (Color: RGB)

Type of Keyboard

- Function Keys (F1-F12): For help witch program

- Letter Keys (A-Z): For type letter into computer

- Numeric Keys (0-9): For type number into computer

- Punctuation Keys (! , . ; ’…): Is symbol keys for type into computer

- Arrow Keys (): For replace cursor to anywhere

and additional keys such as: Home, End, PageUP, PageDown, Alt, Ctrl, Shift, Enter,…

1.2.4. System Unit: All Hardware such as System Case, Mainboard Hard Disk, RAM, CPU, Floppy Disk,… in case for Computer work.
slide19 System Case: Case with Power Supply. Case for contain all necessary hardware such as main board, hard disk, ram all so.

Power Supply for convert from AC (110V, 220V, 230V) to DC (12V, 5V, 3V, 0V,...)

slide20 System Case: Case with Power Supply. Case for contain all necessary hardware such as main board, hard disk, ram all so.

Power Supply for convert from AC (110V, 220V, 230V) to DC (12V, 5V, 3V, 0V,...)

slide21 Main board: Main board or Motherboard is the big circuit in system unit for connect hardware and Line data that support on it to work together

Sound + VGA card


Sound + VGA Built-in

slide22 HDD= Hard Disk= Hard Disk Drive= Hard Drive

is the important hardware in computer. Is the rigit magnetic disk that is able to store many times more data than a floppy disk, and usually can’t removed from the disk.



slide23 Processor and Memory:

+ Processor or CPU:Group of circuits witch perform the basic functions of a computer, made up of three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic and logic unit and the input/output unit.





CPU Socket

CPU Slot

SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module)


DIMM (Double/Dual Inline Memory Module)

+ Memory or RAM:allows access to any location in any order, without having to access the rest first.

 Part II


Microsoft Disk Operating System


2.1.What is MS-DOS?

MS-DOS=Microsoft Disk Operating System

2.2. What is OS?

OS=Operating System. Software that controls the basic, low level hardware operation, and file management, without the user having to operate it (the operating system is usually supplied with the computer as part of the bundled software in ROM).


2.3. Files of OS





2.4. Commands of MS-DOS

 Key Commands

- Enter

- Ctrl+C

- Ctrl+S

- F1

- F3

- F5

- F8

IE Commands

 Internal and External Commands

Directory Commands

File Commands

System Commands

Disk Commands


Directory Commands


Directory Commands

Commands for Create, Delete, Rename , Copy, Change,… directories and subdirectories.


1.1. MD (Make Directory) (I):

Type of Command

Full Name of Command


i.i MD (Make Directory) (I): Is the command to configure on the directory such as for create directory and subdirectory.

Syntax: MD [Drive:] [PATH][DIR-NAME]

Ex.: C:\>md aeu 

C:\>md aeu\computer 

C:\>md aeu\computer\semester1 

C:\>md aeu\computer\semester1\intro

C:\>md aeu\computer\semester1\software

C:\>md D:\business 

C:\>md D:\economic 

i.ii DIR (Directory) (I): Specifies Drive, directory and/or file to list

Syntax: DIR [Drive:] [PATH] [/P] [/W] [/A] [/?] 

- /P Pause after each screen full information

- /A Display files with specified attributes.

- /w Uses wide list format

- /L Uses lowercase

Ex.: C:\>dir 

Volume in drive C is AEU

Volume Serial Number is 6899-84BE

Directory of C:\

Document and Setting 01/17/2000 08:57a


03/02/2004 10:01a

Odbcconf.log 2,403 02/10/2004 01:06p

Pkgclnup.doc 10,022 01/17/2004 08:15p


03/02/2004 07:06a

2 Files(s) 12,425 bytes

3 Directories 15,011,131,392 bytes free

View Group of Files Name:

You can use wildcard (*,?) to view group of files.

Ex.: C:\>Dir *.doc  (View all of files that extension .doc)

C:\>Dir Th?da.txt 

C:\>Dir J?n*.* 

You can use(/?) aftercommandtohelp how to use those commands.

Ex.:C:\>Dir /?

C:\>CD /?

i.iii CD (Change Directory) (I): Display the name of or changes

current directory.

Syntax: CD [Drive:] [PATH]

Ex.: C:\>cdc:\aeu

=> C:\aeu>cd computer

=> C:\aeu\computer>cdsemester1

=> C:\aeu\computer\semester1>cd..

=> C:\aeu\computer>cd\

=> C:\>D:

=> D:\>A:

=> A:\>







i.iv RD (Remove Directory) (I): Removes or Deletes a directory.

Syntax: RD [Drive:] [PATH] [DIR-NAME] 

Ex.: C:\>rd c:\aeu\computer\semester1

or C:\>cd c:\aeu\computer

=> C:\aeu\computer>rd semester1

C:\>rd c:\aeu\computer

C:\>rd c:\aeu\business\accounting

C:\>rd c:\aeu\business

C:\>rd aeu


File Commands

2. File Commands

We use file commands to configure on the file such as create, delete, copy, rename, and attrib files.

2.1. COPY CON (I):is the command for copy one or more file to

another location by keyboard.

Syntax: COPY CON [Drive:] [PATH] [FILE-NAME]

Ex.1: C:\>Copy con A:\Kimsan\Hello.txt

………………………………………………. 

…..………Type text……………………. 

press F6 or Ctrl+Z to save file

Ex.2: C:\>Copy con A:\Kimsan\Dara\Jan.doc

…………….type text here……………………


Press F6 or Ctrl+Z to save file 

2.2. TYPE (I): is the command for display the contents of a text

file or files.

Syntax: TYPE [Drive:] [PATH] [FILE-NAME]

Ex.: C:\>Type A:\Kimsan\Hello.txt

C:\>Type A:\Kimsan\Dara\Jan.doc

2.3. REN (Rename) (I): is the command for renames a File

Directory or Files/Directories.

When you rename file the same copy file because we give new file name but meaning of file not change.

Syntax: REN [Drive:] [PATH] [Dir1] [FILE-NAME1] [Dir2]


Ex.1: C:\>Ren A:\Kimsan\Hello.txt Jan.txt

We rename the Hello.txt file to Jan.txt file in directory Kimsan.

Ex.2: C:\>Ren A:\Kimsan\Dara\Jan.doc Sok.bat

In the same, we rename Jan.doc to Sok.bat file in drive A directory Kimsan subdirectory Dara and the Ex.3 we rename the directory AEI to AEU in drive A and AEU to AEI in current drive C

Ex.3: C:\>Ren A:\AEI AEU 

C:\>Ren AEU AEI

If we want to rename a group of files to other files you can do like this:

C:\>Ren *.exe *.bak

In this example we rename all the files that have extension (.exe) to (.bak) in drive C:

C:\>Ren *.* *.doc

We rename all files name and its extension to the same name but extension (.doc).

2.4. DEL (Delete) (I): is the command for delete one or more

files. This command delete files only.

Syntax: DEL [Drive:] [PATH] [FILE-NAME]

- Delete Single File: Before we delete file we need to know the destination of the file. In this example we have the file in drive A: and directory name Kimsan we can do like this:

C:\>Del A:\Kimsan\Hello.txt

- Delete a Group of Files: we delete a group of files we use Del commandwith wildcards (*,?).

C:\>Del A:\*.*

we delete all of files in drive A:

2.5. COPY (I): is the command for copy one or more files

to another location:

- Copy from Directory to another Directory

- Copy a group of file use wildcards

- Rename a files as it is copied

- Combining text files

- Copy a file to a printer

Syntax: COPY [Drive1:] [PATH] [FILE-NAME1] [Drive2:] [PATH]


2.5.1. Copy a single file: Copy a file to another location.

Ex.: C:\>Copy A:\Senat.txt D:\Kimsan

We copy file Senat.txt from drive A: to drive D: in Kimsan

2.5.2. Copy a group of files: We use wildcards to copy a group

of files.

Ex.: C:\>Copy *.exe A:\Dara Copy all name of the files that have extension (.exe) in drive C: to directory Dara in drive A

Ex.: C:\>Copy A:\Jan?.* C:\Sok Copy all files that begin with Jan word and with last one character and all extension to drive C: in directory Sok.

By this example, if floppy A: has 5 files such as: Jan1.doc, Jan2.txt, Jan3.bak, Jana.txt, january.doc. Its will copy 4 files to drive C: in directory Sok, Jan1.doc, Jan2.txt, Jan3.bak, Jana.txt.

It’s not copy January.doc.

Note: When you copy files to another location you should be control capacity in byte of destination that contain files.

2.5.3. Rename a file as it is copied: We can use this command for rename files or extension, this command is like REN.

Ex.: C:\>Copy Hello.txt A:\Hi.txt

If a group of files we use wildcards

C:\>Copy A:\*.tmp D:\*.exe

We can rename name of file in the same location but if you ddn’t change the name of file, MS-DOS will warning message

File cannot be copied onto itself

0 files copied

2.5.4. Combining Text of Files: We use command copy to combine text of 2 or more files into one file by add (+) sign between each file name.

Ex.: we have 4 files, (Hello.txt, Game.doc, Jan.txt and

sok.doc) and want to combine text of all files to one,

named Combine.txt.

C:\>Copy Hello.txt+Game.doc+Jan.txt+sok.doc


2.5.5. Copy a file to printer: To print each text of file, we have to send it through printer cable first and then switch on printer.

Ex.: C:\>Copy Combine.txt lpt1

or C:\>Copy Con lpt1

……………type text here…………..


Press F6 or Ctrl+Z to save file

2.6. Attrib (Attribute) (E): is the command for displays or

changes file to attrib as follow:

- R : Read Only File an Attribute

- A : Archive File an Attribute

- H : Hidden File an Attribute

- S : System File an Attribute

- (+) : Set an Attribute

- (-) : Clear an Attribute

- /S : Processes matching files in the current folder and

all subfolders.

- /D : Processes folders as well.

Syntax: Attrib [+A|-A] [+H|-H] [+R|-R] [+S|-S] [Drive:] [PATH]

[FILE-NAME] [/S] [/D]

Ex.: C:\>Attrib +A +H +R A:\channa.txt 

C:\>dir A: 

C:\>Attrib -A -H -R A:\channa.txt 

C:\>dir A: 

If you want to display all of files that set attribute hidden you can type the command Dir /a.

C:\>Dir /a

If you want to display all of files that set which attribute you can type the command Attrib.

C:\>attrib 

2.7. XCOPY (E): is the command for copies files and directories tree to another location.

Syntax: XCOPY [SOURCE][DESTINATION][/P][/A][/M][/S][/E] [/V]

Source : Specifies the file(s) to copy.

Destination : Specifies the location and/or name of the new files.

/P : Prompt you before you creating each destination file.

/A : Copies file with the archive attribute set, doesn’t change the attribute.

/M : Copies file with the archive attribute set, turn off the archive attribute.

/S : Copies Directories and Subdirectories except empty ones

/E : Copies Directories and Subdirectories, including empty ones

/W : Prompt you to press a key before copying.

/V : Verifies each new files.

To copy directory and subdirectory we use XCOPYCommand. It is the same COPY Command but COPY Command can’t copy directory or subdirectory, it copy file only.

2.7.1. Copy all files in a directory: Copy all files in a directory without subdirectory we use XCOPY Command.


In this example we copy all files in subdirectory studentlist in current drive C: to directory Bopha in drive D: without wildcards

2.7.2. Creating directory as your copy files: If you copy files or directory to new directory that not created, MSDOS will be created.

Ex.: C:\>XCOPY A: D:\Asia

In example above mean: drive D: is empty not directory but when we copy files from drive A: to drive D: directory Asia created. So we create new directory by XCOPY Command.

When we use XCOPY Command the same the rename directory, because after we copy MSDOS will be create new directory that you define for store directory, subdirectory and files that you copy from old directory.

Note: when you enter MSDOS allow you to choice 2 options:

Press F= Create File Only, D= Create New Directory for store subdirectory of file)

2.7.3. Copying Subdirectory: For copy subdirectory to another directory we use with options /s and /e .

Ex.: C:\>XCOPY C:\KIMSAN D:\ /s/e in this example will be show that it is create Kimsan ’s directory and subdirectory again to drive D: include other empty directory.

If you want to copy directory and subdirectory that related files only we use XCOPY Command with slash s (/s)



System Commands

3. System Commands

We use system commands to change, display or sets system of machine.

3.1. VER (Version) (I):is the command for display the version of

DOS or version of OS.

Syntax: VER

Ex.: C:\>Ver

3.2. CLS (Clear Screen) (I):is the command for Clear the Screen.

Syntax: CLS

Ex.: C:\>CLS

3.3. TIME (I):is the command for display or sets the system time.

Syntax: TIME

Ex.: C:\>Time

The current time is: 22:04:13.42

Enter the new time:

3.4. DATE (I):is the command for display or sets the system date.

Syntax: DATE

Ex.: C:\>Date

The current date is: Thu 09/09/2004

Enter the new date:

3.5. SYS (System) (I):Copies MS-DOS System Files and Command Interpreter to a disk you specify.

Syntax:SYS [DRIVE1:][PATH][DRIVE2] 

[DRIVE1:][PATH] Specifies the location of the system files

[DRIVE2:] Specifies the drive the files are to be copied to.

Ex.:C:\>SYS A:  Copies MS-DOS system files from C: to A:

A:\>SYS C:  Copies MS-DOS system Files from A: to C:

After you enter you see the message that system transferred.

3.6. PROMPT (I):Change the MS-DOS Command Prompt.

Syntax:PROMPT [TEXT][X] 

[TEXT]: Specifies a new command prompt.

[X]: normal characters and the following special codes:

$Q = (equal sign)

$$ $ (dollar sign)

$T Current Time

$D Current Date

$P Current drive and path

$B | (pipe)

$V MS-DOS Version number

$G > (greater-than sign)

$L < (less-than sign)

Ex.: C:\>Prompt $$


$Prompt $d


01-07-04 Prompt $L



KimsanPrompt $p$g



Disk Commands

4.1. VOL (Volume) (I):Display the Volume label and serial number, if they exist.

Syntax:VOL [Drive:] 


Volume in drive C: is KIMSAN

Volume Serial Number is 6899-84BE

C:\>Vol A:

Volume in drive A has no label.

Volume Serial Number is 9CE8-D9D5

4.2. LALBEL (I):Creates, Changes or Deletes the volume label of a disk.

Syntax:LABEL [Drive:] [LABEL] 


Volume in drive C: is KIMSAN

Volume Serial Number is 6899-84BE

Volume label ?

C:\>Label A:

Volume in drive A: is KIMSAN

Volume Serial Number is 9CE8-D9D5

Volume label ?

4.3. FORMAT (E): Format a disk for use MS-DOS.

Syntax:FORMAT [Drive:] [/S] [/Q] [/U] [/F:SIZE] 

/S After format, Copy files system to disk

/Q Performs a quick format

/F:Size Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (160 180, 320, 360, 640, 720, 1.2, 1.23, 1.44, 2.88, or 20.8)

/8 formats eight sectors per track

Ex:C:\>Format A: /S 

A:\>Format C: /S/Q 

4.4. CHKDSK (Check Disk) (I): Check a disk and display a status report.

Syntax:CHKDSK [Drive:] [PATH] [FILE-NAME] [/F] [/V] 

CHKDSK [Drive:] [/F] [/V]

/F Fixes errors on the disk

/V Display the full path and name of every file on the disk.

Ex:C:\>chkdsk 

D:\>chkdsk /f/v 

4.5. MEM (Memory) (I): Display the amount of used and free memory in your system.

Syntax:MEM [/C] [/D] [/F] [/M] [/P] 

CHKDSK [Drive:] [/F] [/V]

/Classify or /C: Classifies programs by memory usage.

/Debug or /D: Displays status of all modules in memory.

/Free or /F: Displays information about the amount of free memory left in both conventional upper memory.

/Module or /M: Displays a detailed listing of a module’s memory use.

/Page or /P: Pauses after each screen full of information.


4.6. SCANDISK (E): Is the command for checking for errors in disks.

For more information about the command-line parameters supported by scandisk for windows, look up ‘ checking for errors, in disk’ in the windows help index. Then view the topic ‘checking your disk for errors every time your computer starts.’

Syntax:SCANDISK [Drive:]


A:\>scandisk C:

C:\>scandisk A: 

4.7. Defrag (E):

Syntax: Defrag [Drive:]

Ex:C:\>defrag (on windows click start->program->accessories

->system tools->choose scandisk or disk defragmenter)

4.8. DISKCOPY (E): Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.

Syntax: DISKCOPY [Drive1:] [Drive2:]

DISKCOPY [Drive1:] [Drive2:] [/1][/V][/M]

- /1 Copies only the first side of the disk

- /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly

- /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only

The two floppy disks must be the same type

You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.

Ex:C:\>Diskcopy A: A:

Insert SOURCE disk in drive A:

and press ENTER when ready…

4.9. MSBACKUP (E): BackuporRestoredata to and fromdisk.

Syntax: MSBACKUP [Drive:]


4.10. DBLSPACE.BIN or DRVSPACE.BIN (E):For compress disk.

Syntax:DRVSPACE [Drive:]


We use DBLSPACE.BIN or DRVSPACE.BIN for HDD that have space below 500 MB and we use dblspace.bin for MS-DOS Version 6.00 and 6.20 and drvspace.bin for MS-DOS Version 6.22. In windows 98se click start-> program-> Accessories-> System Tools-> Compression Agent next do by intruction.

4.11. FDISK (Fixed Disk) (E): Command for create partition table for disk.

You can do this command, you must to have startup disk or system disk store files:, io.sys, msdos.sys, drvspace.bin, format.exe, fdisk.exe

In BIOS setup program change first boot from floppy disk. After command prompt (A:\>) type Fdisk 

Ex.: A:\>Fdisk

Click Yes to view large disk support.


Choose one of the following:

1. Create DOS partition or logical DOS drive.

2. Set active partition.

3. Delete partition or logical DOS drive.

4. Display partition information.

Enter Choice: [-]

4.12. EDIT (I):

Syntax: EDIT [Drive:] [Path] [File-Name]

Ex.: C:\>edit A:\Hello.txt


MS-DOS Editor can do this:

- Choose information from menu and special information and preferences in dialog box.

- Choose text and move, copy or delete.

- Find and instead text

 Create File

 Open File

 Save File

 Print File

 Print Help Topic

 Control The Screen Display

2.5. Batch Program

- What is the batch? Batch Files? Batch Program?